Prostate Cancer Screening

What is screening?

Cancer screening looks for a hidden cancer before a person has any warning signs or symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread.

Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the things around us to see if they cause cancer. This information helps doctors recommend who should be screened for cancer, which screening tests should be used, and how often the tests should be done.

It is important to remember that your doctor does not necessarily think you have cancer if he or she suggests a screening test. Screening tests are given when you have no cancer symptoms. Screening tests may be repeated on a regular basis.

If a screening test result is abnormal, you may need to have more tests done to find out if you have cancer. These are called diagnostic tests.

Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate.

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The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). The prostate gland produces fluid that makes up part of semen.

Picture of the male anatomy
Picture of the male anatomy

Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs.

As men age, the prostate may get bigger. A bigger prostate may block the flow of urine from the bladder and cause problems with urination. Rarely, this may cause problems with sexual function as well. This condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed to correct it. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer.

Picture of benign prostatic hyperplasis (BPH)
Picture of benign prostatic hyperplasis (BPH)

Normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A normal prostate does not block the flow of urine from the bladder. An enlarged prostate presses on the bladder and urethra and blocks the flow of urine.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/3/2014

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Prostate Cancer Screening

Should I Get Screened for Prostate Cancer?

Not all medical experts agree that screening for prostate cancer will save lives. Currently, there is not enough evidence to decide if the potential benefits of prostate cancer screening outweigh the potential risks.