Prostate Cancer

  • Medical Author: Jay B. Zatzkin, MD, FACP
  • Medical Editor: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
    John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP

    John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP

    John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.

Red Meats and Processed Meats Raise Cancer Risk

On Oct. 26, 2015, the cancer agency for the World Health Organization (the International Agency for Research on Cancer or IARC) placed red meats and processed meats into their group system that lists cancer-causing agents. The IARC consists of 22 experts from 10 countries. Cancer-causing agents are referred to as carcinogenic agents. This grouping of carcinogenic agents is based on evidence either:

  • that they can cause cancer (group 1) or
  • that they probably can cause cancer (group 2A) in humans.

This has caused quite a stir in many arenas, especially the beef-producing companies.

Quick GuideProstate Cancer Symptoms, PCA Test, Treatments

Prostate Cancer Symptoms, PCA Test, Treatments

Prostate cancer facts*

*Prostate cancer facts medical author: Charles P. Davis, MD

  • The prostate is a gland that is a part of the male reproductive system that wraps around the male urethra at its exit from the bladder
  • Common problems are BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia), acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic prostatitis (non-bacterial)
  • Prostate cancer is common in men over 50, especially in African-Americans and in men who eat fatty food and/or have a father or brother with prostate cancer
  • Symptoms of prostate problems (and prostate cancer) include urinary problems (little or no urine output, difficulty starting (straining) or stopping the urine stream, frequent urination, dribbling, pain or burning during urination), erectile dysfunction, painful ejaculation, blood in urine or semen and/or deep back, hip, pelvic or abdominal pain; other symptoms may include weight loss, bone pain and lower extremity swelling
  • Prostate cancer is definitively diagnosed by tissue biopsy; initial studies may include a rectal exam, ultrasound and PSA (prostate-specific antigen) levels
  • Treatments for prostate cancer may include surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy
  • PSA testing is considered to be yearly PSA tests; not all agree this should be done
  • Identify prostate problems early is a way to reduce future prostate problems

What is prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is cancer of prostate gland. The prostate gland is a walnut-sized gland present only in men found in the pelvis, wrapped around the urethra (the tube through which urine exits the body). The prostate gland secretes part of the liquid portion of the semen, or seminal fluid, which carries sperm made by the testes. The fluid is essential to reproduction.

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer that develops in men other than skin cancers, and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men. In 2015 the American Cancer Society estimated over 220,000 men were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and more than 27,800 men died from the disease -- though many of them had lived with the disease for years prior to their deaths.

Prostate cancer is comprised nearly always of adenocarcinoma cells -- cells which arise from glandular tissue. Cancer cells are named according to the organ in which they originate no matter where in the body we find such cells. Thus, if prostate cancer cells spread in the body to the bones, that is not then called bone cancer. It is prostate cancer metastatic to the bones. Matastasis is the process of cancer spread through the blood or lymphatic system.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/12/2015

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