Robert Ferry Jr., MD, is a U.S. board-certified Pediatric Endocrinologist. After taking his baccalaureate degree from Yale College, receiving his doctoral degree and residency training in pediatrics at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), he completed fellowship training in pediatric endocrinology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
Ruchi Mathur, MD, FRCP(C) is an Attending Physician with the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and Associate Director of Clinical Research, Recruitment and Phenotyping with the Center for Androgen Related Disorders, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
A prolactinoma is a benign tumor of the pituitary
Prolactinomas cause secretion of the hormone prolactin, which
stimulates the breast to produce milk.
The aims of treatment are the reduction of prolactin level to
normal, reduction of tumor size, and restoration of normal pituitary
Most prolactinomas occur sporadically with a low risk of
recurrence in the family.
However, some prolactinomas are due to a genetic predisposition
and carry a high risk of recurrence.
The overall success rate in treating prolactinomas is very
What is a prolactinoma (pituitary tumor)?
A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (called an adenoma) of the pituitary gland. A prolactinoma produces an excessive amount of the hormone prolactin. Prolactin is a natural hormone which supports a woman's normal lactation (breastfeeding). Prolactinomas are the most common type of pituitary tumor. Symptoms of prolactinoma are caused by pressure of the tumor on surrounding tissues or by excessive release of prolactin from the tumor into the blood (causing a condition known as hyperprolactinemia).
What is the normal function of prolactin?
Prolactin stimulates the breast tissues to enlarge during
pregnancy. After delivery of the baby, the mother's prolactin level falls unless she breastfeeds her infant. Each time the baby nurses from the breasts, prolactin levels rise to maintain milk production.
What is the pituitary gland?
Sometimes called the master gland, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in regulating growth and development, metabolism, and reproduction. This gland produces prolactin and a number of other key hormones including:
Growth hormone, which as the name indicates, regulates
ACTH (adrenocorticotropin hormone) which stimulates the adrenal
glands to produce cortisol, especially during
stressful events (surgery, etc.)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which signals the thyroid gland to produce thyroid
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which
regulate ovulation and estrogen and progesterone production in women,
and sperm formation and testosterone production in men.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the persistent inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. A breakdown occurs in the normal physiology that all"...