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- Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) definition
- What causes primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- What are the risk factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- What are the signs and symptoms of primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- How is the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis made?
- What is the treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- Liver transplant
- What complications are associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis?
- Can primary sclerosing cholangitis be prevented?
- What is the prognosis and life expectancy for a person with primary sclerosing cholangitis?
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) definition
Primary sclerosing cholangitis describes a disease process in which the bile ducts in the liver become inflamed, narrow and prevent bile from flowing properly.
The liver produces bile to help digest food in the intestine. Bile from liver cells is transported through the bile ducts in the biliary tree, where it then enters the gallbladder. When food enters the small intestine, bile helps break down fat into fatty acids so that they can be absorbed and used by the body. This also helps in the absorption of fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E & K).
As the bile ducts become inflamed and narrow, bile cannot easily flow and begins to back up. This increases the pressure within the liver causing liver cells to become inflamed. Over time, this inflammation decreases blood flow within the liver, increasing the pressure in the portal vein. This eventually causes portal hypertension, a back up in the portal system causing veins that line the esophagus, stomach, and intestine to swell (varices) and the spleen to swell (splenomegaly).
What causes primary sclerosing cholangitis?
The cause of PSC is unknown but it has an association with inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. It is thought that there may be an autoimmune component to the disease, where the body's immune system attacks the bile ducts in the liver and causes them to become, inflamed and narrowed.
What are the risk factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis?
The cause of PSC is unknown but it may be an autoimmune disease.
People with PSC who do not have inflammatory bowel disease, are more likely to be female and older.