Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) (cont.)
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For postmenopausal women with PBC, hormonal replacement therapy with estrogen can decrease the risk of osteoporosis. Estrogen, available in oral form or as a patch that allows absorption of estrogen through the skin, is safe for women with PBC. Remember, however, that there is controversy about the use of estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women who have had breast cancer, because of a possible risk of recurrence of the cancer. There is also concern about prolonged use of estrogens with progestin in incrasing the risk of coronary heart diseases, strokes, and pulmonary embolism in healthy menopausal women. Therefore, whether to use estrogen or not should be individualized after consulting one's doctor. Another alternative to estrogen to protect bone density in patients with PBC is the bisphosphonates, which are FDA-approved drugs for the prevention of osteoporosis. Too few studies have been performed using other drugs (for example, fluoride or calcitonin) for osteoporosis to recommend their use in PBC.