Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Psychological changes or PMS may include anger and depression.
PMS occurs in the last half of a
The exact cause is unknown but is believed to be related to interactions between sex hormones and brain chemicals (neurotransmitters).
PMS must be distinguished from
other disorders that produce similar symptoms.
A helpful diagnostic tool for PMS is a
Treatment options for PMS include exercise, a healthy lifestyle, emotional support
from family and friends, and medications.
Possible medical treatments for PMS include diuretics, pain killers,
contraceptives, drugs that suppress ovarian function, and
What is premenstrual syndrome?
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
is a combination of emotional, physical, psychological, and mood disturbances that occur after a woman's ovulation and typically ending with the onset of her
menstrual flow. The most common mood-related symptoms are irritability,
depression, crying, oversensitivity, and mood swings. The most common physical symptoms are fatigue, bloating,
breast tenderness (mastalgia),
acne, and appetite changes with food cravings.
A more severe form of PMS, known as
premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), also known as late luteal phase dysphoric disorder, occurs in a smaller number of women and leads to significant loss of function because of unusually severe symptoms.
The American Psychiatric Association characterizes PMDD as a severe form of PMS
in which anger, irritability, and
anxiety or tension are