Pregnancy Basics Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Pregnancy Basics. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Pregnancy Basics or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Constipation Constipation is defined medically as fewer than three stools per week and severe constipation as less than one stool per week....learn more »
    In This Article
    Constipation Article
    • Constipation facts
    • What is constipation?
    • What causes constipation?
    • Medications that cause constipation
    • Other causes of constipation
    • What are constipation symptoms?
    • How is constipation evaluated (diagnosed)?
    • What treatments are available for constipation?
    • Home remedies and OTC medications to treat constipation
    • Prescription drugs to treat constipation
    • Other treatments for constipation
    • What is the approach to the evaluation and treatment of constipation?
    • When should I seek medical care for chronic constipation?
    • What's new in the treatment of constipation?
  • Blood Clots Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins,...learn more »
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge resulting from an overgrowth of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bacterial Vaginosis Article
    • Bacterial vaginosis facts
    • What is bacterial vaginosis?
    • What is causes bacterial vaginosis?
    • What are symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?
    • Is bacterial vaginosis contagious?
    • How is bacterial vaginosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bacterial vaginosis?
    • Are there home remedies for bacterial vaginosis?
    • Can bacterial vaginosis be prevented?
    • What are the complications of bacterial vaginosis?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for bacterial vaginosis?
  • Nosebleed Nosebleed is common in dry climates during winter months, and in hot dry climates with low humidity. Individual taking blood...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nosebleed Article
    • Nosebleed facts
    • What causes nosebleeds?
    • How do you stop the common nosebleed?
    • How do you prevent the nose from bleeding again?
    • What precautions can you take to prevent nose bleeding?
    • When should you call your doctor or go to an emergency room?
    • What should I do if the doctor has placed nasal packs?
  • Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy located outside the inner lining of the uterus. The majority of ectopic pregnancies occur in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Ectopic Pregnancy Article
    • Ectopic pregnancy facts
    • What is an ectopic pregnancy?
    • What are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy?
    • How is ectopic pregnancy diagnosed?
    • What is the health risk of an ectopic pregnancy?
    • What treatment options are available for ectopic pregnancy?
  • Itching Itching can be a common problem. Itches can be localized or generalized. There are many causes of itching to include: infection...learn more »
    In This Article
    Itching Article
    • Itch facts
    • What is an itch?
    • What are associated symptoms and signs of itching?
    • What causes itching?
    • How is the cause of itching diagnosed?
    • Should I scratch the itch?
    • What are topical itch treatments? Are there any home remedies for itching?
    • What are oral itch treatments?
    • Can itching be prevented?
    • When should the doctor be consulted for itching?
    • What are possible complications of itching?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for itching?
  • Pregnancy (Week By Week, Trimesters) There are many symptoms involved in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. The first early pregnancy symptom is typically...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy (Week By Week, Trimesters) Article
    • Pregnancy facts*
    • Introduction
    • What is the first trimester (week 1-week 12)?
    • What is the second trimester (week 13-week 28)?
    • What is the third trimester (week 29-week 40)?
    • How will my baby develop week by week?
    • What are the changes that happen to a woman's body during her 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy?
    • Body aches
    • Breast changes
    • Constipation
    • Dizziness
    • Fatigue, sleep problems
    • Heartburn and indigestion
    • Hemorrhoids during pregnancy
    • Itching
    • Leg cramps
    • Morning sickness
    • Nasal problems
    • Numb or tingling hands
    • Stretch marks, skin changes
    • Swelling
    • Urinary frequency and leaking
    • Varicose veins
  • Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) usually is caused from bacteria that have spread from the bladder from a UTI (urinary tract...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) Article
    • Kidney infection facts
    • What is the function of the kidneys?
    • Where are the kidneys located?
    • What is a kidney infection?
    • What are the causes of kidney infection?
    • What are risk factors for kidney and urinary tract infection?
    • Is screening recommended for UTI or kidney infection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of kidney infection?
    • How is kidney infection diagnosed?
    • What are different types of kidney infection?
    • What are the common bacteria that cause kidney infections?
    • What is the treatment for kidney infection?
    • Are there foods I should avoid if I have a kidney infection?
    • Can kidney infection be prevented?
  • Iron Deficiency Iron is a mineral our bodies need. Iron deficiency is a condition resulting from not enough iron in the body. It is the most...learn more »
    In This Article
    Iron Deficiency Article
    • Iron and iron deficiency facts*
    • What is iron and why do we need it?
    • What is iron deficiency and why is it a concern?
    • What causes iron deficiency?
    • Who is most at risk for iron deficiency?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of iron deficiency?
    • How is iron deficiency diagnosed?
    • How is iron deficiency treated?
    • Can iron deficiency be prevented?
    • Babies
    • Young children (aged 1-5 years)
    • Adolescent girls and women of childbearing age
    • Pregnant women
    • How much iron do I need?
    • What are dietary sources of iron?
    • Dietary sources of Vitamin C
    • Iron overload and hemochromatosis
  • Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids (piles) are swollen veins in the rectum and anus. Causes include pregnancy, obesity, diarrhea, low-fiber diet, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hemorrhoids Article
    • Definition of hemorrhoid
    • What causes hemorrhoids?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a hemorrhoid?
    • What does a hemorrhoid look like?
    • How is the diagnosis of hemorrhoids made?
    • How are hemorrhoids treated?
    • OTC medications and home remedies for hemorrhoids
    • Non-surgical approaches
    • Hemorrhoid surgery
    • What is the prognosis for hemorrhoids?
  • Dizziness Dizziness is a symptom that is often applies to a variety of sensations including lightheadedness and vertigo. Causes of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dizziness Article
    • Dizziness facts
    • Introduction to dizziness (feeling dizzy)
    • What are some common causes of dizziness?
    • Low blood pressure
    • Postural or orthostatic hypotension
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • Endocrine diseases
    • Hyperventilation
    • Heart conditions
    • Vasovagal syncope
    • Dizziness and vertigo
    • What are the symptoms experienced when a person feels dizzy?
    • When should I call the doctor for dizziness?
    • How is dizziness diagnosed?
    • How is vertigo diagnosed?
    • How is dizziness treated?
  • Fainting (Syncope) Fainting, also referred to as blacking out, syncope, or temporary loss of consciousness has many causes. Often a person will have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fainting (Syncope) Article
    • Fainting (syncope) facts
    • Introduction to fainting (syncope)
    • What causes fainting (syncope)?
    • Heart rhythm changes
    • Heart structural conditions
    • Heart valve conditions
    • Sudden cardiac death
    • Postural hypotension
    • Vasovagal syncope
    • Anemia
    • Dehydration
    • Orthostatic hypotension
    • Vertebrobasilar artery disease
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Other medications and drugs
    • Pregnancy
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fainting (syncope)?
    • How is fainting (syncope) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fainting (syncope)?
    • Can fainting (syncope) be prevented?
  • Internal Bleeding Internal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Internal Bleeding Article
    • Internal bleeding facts
    • What is internal bleeding?
    • What causes internal bleeding?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of internal bleeding?
    • How is internal bleeding diagnosed?
    • How is internal bleeding treated?
    • What are the complications of internal bleeding?
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a condition in which the acidified liquid contents of the stomach backs up into the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Article
    • GERD facts
    • What is GERD (acid reflux)?
    • What causes GERD?
    • What are the symptoms of uncomplicated GERD?
    • What are the complications of GERD?
    • How is GERD diagnosed and evaluated?
    • Symptoms and procedures to diagnose GERD
    • GERD tests
    • How is GERD treated?
    • Lifestyle changes and GERD diet
    • GERD medications
    • GERD surgery
    • What is a reasonable approach to the management of GERD?
    • What are the unresolved issues in GERD?
  • Gum Disease Gum disease is caused by plaque and may result in tooth loss without proper treatment. Symptoms and signs of gum disease...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gum Disease Article
    • What is gum disease (gingivitis)?
    • What is the difference between gingivitis and periodontital disease?
    • What causes gum disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of gum disease?
    • How is gum disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for gum disease?
    • Are home remedies or natural treatments effective for gum disease?
    • Can gum disease be reversed?
    • Is gum disease associated with other health problems?
    • How is gum disease managed in children?
    • How is gum disease managed in pregnancy?
    • Can gum disease be prevented?
    • Is gum disease contagious?
  • Mercury Poisoning Mercury is a naturally occurring element found in water, soil, and the air. Mercury is also contained in some fish, some of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Mercury Poisoning Article
    • Mercury poisoning facts*
    • Mercury introduction
    • General information about mercury and mercury exposure
    • What are the health effects and symptoms of mercury exposure or poisoning?
    • What about mercury in batteries?
    • What about mercury in dental amalgam?
    • What about mercury in fish?
    • What about mercury in fluorescent light bulbs?
    • What about thimerosal in vaccines?
    • What about mercury in thermometers for fever?
    • What about mercury in recycling and waste disposal?
    • How are mercury spills cleaned up?
    • What are more mercury-containing products?
    • How can I find out about mercury exposure where I live?
  • Fatigue Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatigue Article
    • Fatigue Facts
    • Fatigue introduction
    • What causes fatigue?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fatigue?
    • How is the cause of fatigue diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fatigue?
    • Can fatigue be prevented?
  • Varicose Veins Varicose vein: A dilated (widened) tortuous (twisting) vein, usually involving a superficial vein in the leg, often associated...learn more »
    In This Article
    Varicose Veins Article
    • Varicose veins and spider veins facts
    • What are veins and what is their function?
    • What are varicose veins and spider veins?
    • Varicose vein and spider vein pictures
    • Who gets varicose and spider veins?
    • What causes varicose and spider veins?
    • What are varicose vein symptoms?
    • How are varicose veins evaluated (diagnosed)?
    • What treatments are available for varicose veins and spider veins?
    • How can compression stockings help with varicose veins?
    • What is sclerotherapy?
    • Pictures of sclerotherapy treatment
    • What are potential side effects and complications of sclerotherapy?
    • What surgical procedures are available to treat varicose veins?
    • Can laser be used to treat varicose and spider veins?
    • What type of doctors provide treatments for varicose and spider veins?
    • What are the side effects of these treatments?
    • How can varicose veins be prevented?
  • Miscarriage Miscarriage is the medical term for the spontaneous loss of pregnancy from conception to 20 weeks gestation. Risk factors for a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Miscarriage Article
    • What is a miscarriage?
    • How common is miscarriage?
    • What causes miscarriage?
    • What are the types of miscarriage?
    • What are signs and symptoms of a miscarriage?
    • How is miscarriage diagnosed?
    • What happens after a miscarriage?
    • What is the outlook for future pregnancies after a miscarriage?
    • Can miscarriage be prevented?
  • Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Preeclampsia is a condition in pregnant women marked by high blood pressure and a high level of protein in the urine. Eclampsia...learn more »
    In This Article
    Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Article
    • Preeclampsia and eclampsia facts
    • What are preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • What causes preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • Who is at risk for preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • What are the symptoms of preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • How are preeclampsia and eclampsia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • What are complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • Can preeclampsia and eclampsia be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for preeclampsia and eclampsia?
  • Women's Health Women's health is an important topic area to guide a woman through the stages of her life, as well as knowing the conditions and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Women's Health Article
    • Introduction to women's health
    • Women's general health and wellness
    • Female anatomy
    • The female reproductive System
    • Female hormones
    • Diseases more common in women
    • Cancer in women
    • Women's cosmetic concerns
    • Menstruation
    • Sexuality
    • Fertility, birth control, and infertility
    • Pregnancy
    • Motherhood
    • Menopause
    • The mature woman - post menopause
  • Sleep A number of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sleep Article
    • What is sleep?
    • What are the stages of sleep?
    • How much sleep does a person need?
    • Does the amount of sleep we need change as we age?
    • What are signs and symptoms of sleep deprivation?
    • What are and what causes sleep disorders?
    • How are sleep problems diagnosed?
    • How are sleep problems treated?
    • Sleep hygiene
    • Other therapies
    • Sleep aids (prescription and OTC)
    • Are sleep problems and disease related?
    • How can I get a good night's sleep?
  • Fetal Movement: Feeling Baby Kick Week-by-Week Pregnancy can be one of the most joyous time in a couples life. Learn what your baby's first movements may feel like week by...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fetal Movement: Feeling Baby Kick Week-by-Week Article
    • Fetal Movement Introduction
    • When Will I Feel My Baby Kicking?
    • What Does the Baby Kicking Feel Like?
    • How Often Should I Feel My Baby Moving?
    • Should I Monitor My Baby's Kicking?
    • What If You Don't Feel Your Baby Moving?
    • Timeline of Baby Movement
  • Infertility Infertility is the diminished ability to conceive a child. The primary cause of infertility in men is a sperm disorder. In women,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Infertility Article
    • Infertility facts*
    • What is infertility?
    • Is infertility a common problem?
    • Is infertility just a woman's problem?
    • What causes infertility in men?
    • What increases a man's risk of infertility?
    • What causes infertility in women?
    • What things increase a woman's risk of infertility?
    • How does age affect a woman's ability to have children?
    • How long should women try to get pregnant before calling their doctors?
    • How will doctors find out if a woman and her partner have fertility problems?
    • How do doctors treat infertility?
    • What medicines are used to treat infertility in women?
    • What is intrauterine insemination (IUI)?
    • What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)?
    • How often is assisted reproductive technology (ART) successful?
    • What are the different types of assisted reproductive technology (ART)?
    • Surrogacy
    • Gestational carrier
    • For more information
  • Facial Nerve Problems and Bell's Palsy (Bell Palsy) Facial nerve disorders affect the muscles of the face. There are many causes of facial nerve disorders including trauma, nervous...learn more »
    In This Article
    Facial Nerve Problems and Bell's Palsy (Bell Palsy) Article
    • Facial nerve problems and Bell's palsy facts
    • What is the facial nerve?
    • What are symptoms of a facial nerve problem?
    • What conditions affect the facial nerve?
    • How are the causes of facial nerve dysfunction diagnosed?
    • What is and what causes Bell's palsy?
    • What are the symptoms of Bell's palsy?
    • What is the mechanism of injury in Bell's palsy?
    • What are treatment options of facial nerve paralysis?
    • What is the treatment for eye problems from facial nerve disorder?
    • What surgical reconstruction options are available?
    • What is the prognosis for facial nerve problems?
    • Can facial nerve problems be prevented?
  • Pregnancy Symptoms (Am I Pregnant?) Pregnancy symptoms can vary from woman to woman, but some common symptoms include mood changes, headaches, lower back pain,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy Symptoms (Am I Pregnant?) Article
    • 8 fast pregnancy symptoms facts
    • Pregnancy symptoms in general
    • 13 signs and symptoms of early pregnancy
    • 8 signs and symptoms of later pregnancy
    • 8 options for relief of pregnancy symptoms
  • Phlebitis Phlebitis is the inflammation of a vein. Thrombophlebitis is when a blood clot causes the inflammation. Phlebitis can be...learn more »
    In This Article
    Phlebitis Article
    • Phlebitis facts
    • What is phlebitis and thrombophlebitis?
    • What causes phlebitis?
    • What are the risk factors for phlebitis?
    • What are the symptoms of phlebitis?
    • How is phlebitis diagnosed?
    • How is phlebitis treated?
    • What are the complications of phlebitis?
    • Can phlebitis be prevented?
  • Placenta Previa Placenta previa is a condition during pregnancy when the placenta lies low in the uterus either partly or completely blocking the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Placenta Previa Article
    • Placenta previa facts
    • What is placenta previa?
    • What are the types of placenta previa?
    • Who is at risk for placenta previa?
    • What causes placenta previa?
    • What are the symptoms of placenta previa?
    • How is placenta previa diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for placenta previa?
    • What are possible complications of placenta previa?
    • Can placenta previa be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for placenta previa?
  • Hydronephrosis Distention of the kidney with urine. Hydronephrosis is caused by obstruction of urine outflow (for example, by a stone blocking...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hydronephrosis Article
    • Hydronephrosis facts
    • What is hydronephrosis?
    • What causes hydronephrosis?
    • What are the symptoms of hydronephrosis?
    • When should I seek medical care for hydronephrosis?
    • How is hydronephrosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for hydronephrosis?
    • What are the complications of hydronephrosis?
    • Can hydronephrosis be prevented?
  • Gestational Diabetes Gestational diabetes is a condition that is first recognized during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood sugar....learn more »
    In This Article
    Gestational Diabetes Article
    • What is gestational diabetes?
    • What causes gestational diabetes?
    • What are risk factors for gestational diabetes?
    • What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes?
    • How is gestational diabetes diagnosed?
    • What are the consequences of gestational diabetes for the baby and mother?
    • What is the treatment for gestational diabetes?
    • Is there a special diet for a woman with gestational diabetes?
    • Can gestational diabetes be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for gestational diabetes?
  • Microcephaly Microcephaly is a genetic condition where the circumference of the head is smaller than normal due to underdeveloped brain....learn more »
    In This Article
    Microcephaly Article
    • Microcephaly facts*
    • What is microcephaly?
    • What causes microcephaly?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of microcephaly?
    • Is there any treatment for microcephaly?
    • What is the prognosis for microcephaly?
    • What research is being done on microcephaly?
    • For more information
  • Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco can have negative health effects such as cancers, poor oral health (gum disease and tooth decay), infertility,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Smokeless Tobacco Article
    • Smokeless tobacco facts
    • What is smokeless tobacco?
    • What are the health risks of smokeless tobacco?
    • Cancer risk
    • Other health risks
    • Is smokeless tobacco safer than cigarette smoking?
    • What is being done to reduce the use of smokeless tobacco?
    • What treatments are available to help people quit using smokeless tobacco?
  • Pregnancy: Trying to Conceive Trying to get conceive, or become pregnant can be challenging, frustrating, and an emotional rollercoaster for some couples....learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Trying to Conceive Article
    • Trying to Conceive Facts*
    • Fertility Awareness
    • Charting your fertility pattern
    • Basal body temperature method
    • Calendar method
    • Cervical mucus method
    • Infertility
    • Causes of infertility
    • Age
    • Health Problems
    • Lifestyle factors
    • Options for infertile couples
    • Treating infertility
    • Adoption
    • Foster care
    • Counseling and support groups
  • Breastfeeding and Formula Feeding It's important to know whether you will breastfeed or bottle-feed your baby prior to delivery, as the breasts' ability to produce...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breastfeeding and Formula Feeding Article
    • Breastfeeding facts
    • When should we decide about breastfeeding?
    • Why is the choice so important?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of formula feeding?
    • Can we use both forms of feedings for our baby?
    • Is there any special preparation required for breastfeeding?
    • When can breastfeeding begin?
    • What is the proper technique for breastfeeding?
    • When should breast pumps be used?
    • Should certain foods be avoided while breastfeeding?
    • Clogged milk ducts
    • Sore nipples
    • When should one seek medical care for problems with breastfeeding?
    • Can supplements or medications increase a low milk supply?
    • Is it possible to breastfeed while pregnant?
    • Is smoking harmful when breastfeeding?
    • Do breast implants, surgeries, or reductions affect breastfeeding?
    • How should one wean a baby from breastfeeding?
  • Braxton Hicks Contractions (False Labor) Braxton hicks contractions are also known as false labor pains. Though these irregular uterine contractions may occur in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Braxton Hicks Contractions (False Labor) Article
    • Braxton Hicks contractions facts
    • What are Braxton Hicks contractions?
    • What do Braxton Hicks contractions feel like?
    • What can be done if Braxton Hicks contractions are uncomfortable?
    • When should I call my doctor about Braxton Hicks contractions?
  • Scars Scar formation is a natural part of the healing process after injury. The depth and size of the wound incision and the location...learn more »
    In This Article
    Scars Article
    • Scars facts
    • What is a scar?
    • What are the different types of scars?
    • What causes a scar?
    • What are symptoms and signs of a scar?
    • How are scars diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a scar?
    • Are there any home remedies to reduce scarring?
    • What is the prognosis of a scar?
    • Can scarring be prevented?
    • Does insurance coverage apply to scar treatments?
  • Separation Anxiety Separation anxiety disorder is a common childhood anxiety disorder that has many causes. Infants, children, older kids and adults...learn more »
    In This Article
    Separation Anxiety Article
    • Separation anxiety disorder facts
    • What is separation anxiety disorder?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of separation anxiety disorder?
    • What are causes and risk factors for separation anxiety disorder?
    • How is separation anxiety disorder diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for separation anxiety disorder?
    • What happens if separation anxiety disorder is left untreated?
    • Where can I find more information on separation anxiety disorder?
  • Insomnia Insomnia is the perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep because of difficulty falling asleep; waking up...learn more »
    In This Article
    Insomnia Article
    • Insomnia facts
    • What is insomnia?
    • What causes insomnia?
    • What situational and stress factors cause insomnia?
    • What are the risk factors for insomnia?
    • What are the symptoms of insomnia?
    • When should I call the doctor about insomnia?
    • How is insomnia diagnosed?
    • How is insomnia treated?
    • What are non-medical treatments for insomnia?
    • What is sleep hygiene?
    • How can stimulus control help with insomnia?
    • What is sleep restriction?
    • What medications are used to treat insomnia?
    • What is the outlook for insomnia?
  • Spina Bifida and Anencephaly (Neural Tube Defects) Spina bifida is the most common neural tube defect in the United States. There are four types of spina bifida; 1) occulta, 2)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Spina Bifida and Anencephaly (Neural Tube Defects) Article
    • Spina bifida facts*
    • Introduction to spina bifida
    • What is spina bifida?
    • What are the different types of spina bifida?
    • What causes spina bifida?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of spina bifida?
    • What are the complications of spina bifida?
    • How is spina bifida diagnosed?
    • How is spina bifida treated?
    • Can spina bifida be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for spina bifida?
    • What research is being done on spina bifida?
  • Pregnancy: Bleeding During the First Trimester Bleeding during the first trimester of a pregnancy may be caused by implantation bleeding, changes in the cervix, infections, a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Bleeding During the First Trimester Article
    • Bleeding during the first trimester overview
    • When should you call your doctor about bleeding during the first trimester?
    • What is implantation bleeding during the first trimester?
    • What are other causes of bleeding during the first trimester?
  • Gum Problems Gum problems may be caused by improper brushing and flossing, gum disease, canker sores, treatments and hormonal changes....learn more »
    In This Article
    Gum Problems Article
    • Gum health introduction
    • What are common gum problems?
    • What causes gum problems?
    • What are the risk factors for gum problems?
    • What are signs and symptoms of gum problems?
    • Can gum problems be a sign of something serious?
    • How are gum problems treated?
    • What's the best way to care for your gums?
    • Can gum problems be prevented?
  • Preeclampsia (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension) Preeclampsia is related to increased blood pressure and protein in the mother's urine. Preeclampsia typically begins after the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Preeclampsia (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension) Article
    • Preeclampsia Facts*
    • What Is High Blood Pressure?
    • What Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy?
    • What Is Preeclampsia?
    • How Common Are High Blood Pressure and Preeclampsia in Pregnancy?
    • Who Is More Likely to Develop Preeclampsia?
    • What Are the Symptoms of Preeclampsia and How Is It Detected?
    • How Can Women with High Blood Pressure Prevent Problems During Pregnancy?
    • Does Hypertension or Preeclampsia During Pregnancy Cause Long-Term Heart and Blood Vessel Problems?
  • Thallium Thallium is a metal that can be found in small amounts in the soil. When thallium enters the environment through coal-burning or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thallium Article
    • What is thallium?
    • What happens to thallium when it enters the environment?
    • How might I be exposed to thallium?
    • How can thallium affect my health?
    • How likely is thallium to cause cancer?
    • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to thallium?
    • Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health?
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Secondhand Smoke Secondhand smoke can cause illness and disease in nonsmokers. Some of these conditions include lung cancer, heart disease,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Secondhand Smoke Article
    • Secondhand smoke facts
    • What is secondhand smoke?
    • What causes secondhand smoke?
    • What are the health risks of secondhand smoke?
    • Lung cancer and secondhand smoke
    • Cardiovascular disease and secondhand smoke
    • Other lung diseases and secondhand smoke
    • Secondhand smoke and other effects on children
    • Secondhand smoke and the effects on pregnant women
    • Secondhand smoke and the possible link to breast cancer
    • Is there a safe level of secondhand smoke?
    • What can be done about secondhand smoke exposure?
    • What is thirdhand smoke?
  • Stretch Marks Stretch marks occur in the dermis, the elastic middle layer of skin that allows it to retain its shape. When the skin is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stretch Marks Article
    • Stretch mark facts
    • What are stretch marks?
    • What causes stretch marks?
    • What are risk factors for stretch marks?
    • What are symptoms and signs of stretch marks?
    • How are stretch marks diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for stretch marks?
    • Are there any home remedies for stretch marks?
    • What is the prognosis of stretch marks?
    • Can stretch marks be prevented?
  • Pregnancy Planning Pregnancy planning is an important step in preparation for starting or expanding a family. Planning for a pregnancy includes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy Planning Article
    • Pregnancy planning facts
    • What is pregnancy planning?
    • What are pre-pregnancy planning goals?
    • What is a pregnancy calendar or calculator?
    • How soon can a woman start trying to conceive after stopping birth control?
    • What are dietary considerations for pregnancy planning?
    • How much weight gain is recommended in pregnancy?
    • What about alcohol consumption and pregnancy planning?
    • What infections should be avoided in pregnancy?
    • Should I exercise when pregnant?
    • Is it safe to have sexual intercourse during pregnancy?
    • Is air travel safe for pregnant women?
    • Do medications need to be stopped when planning pregnancy or when a woman becomes pregnant?
  • Fitness Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of disease. Regular exercise can also reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety....learn more »
    In This Article
    Fitness Article
    • The importance of physical activity and fitness
    • Why should I be active?
    • Can everyone benefit from physical activity?
    • What are the recommendations for increasing fitness for youth, adults, and seniors?
    • How do I get started with a fitness plan?
    • When is a medical evaluation necessary?
    • How can I make physical activity a part of my life?
    • What are the components of physical fitness?
    • Fitness terms
  • Pregnancy: Eating Right When Pregnant The amount of weight you should gain during pregnancy depends on your body mass index (BMI) before you became pregnant. Although...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Eating Right When Pregnant Article
    • Eating right when pregnant introduction
    • Goals for healthy eating when pregnant
    • Foods to avoid when pregnant
    • What to eat when pregnant and don't feel well
    • Can I diet while pregnant?
    • Can I eat a "low carb" diet when pregnant?
    • Can I maintain my vegetarian diet when pregnant?
    • Why do I need more calcium when pregnant?
    • How can I get enough calcium if I'm lactose intolerant?
    • Should I take a calcium supplement during pregnancy?
    • Why do I need more iron during pregnancy?
    • What are good sources of iron?
    • Should I take an iron supplement during pregnancy?
    • Food cravings during pregnancy
  • Breast Anatomy The breast, or mammary gland is made up of lobules, milk producing glands, and a system of ducts to transport milk. Both males...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Anatomy Article
    • Breast facts
    • What are the breasts (mammary glands)?
    • What are the anatomical features of the breast?
    • What happens to the breasts in pregnancy?
    • How does breast tissue develop?
    • How are human breasts different from other species?
    • What are the most common medical conditions affecting the breasts?
  • Reproductive Health Reproductive health encompasses the beginning of menstruation for women, choosing the right birth control method for you and your...learn more »
    In This Article
    Reproductive Health Article
    • Menstruation and menopause
    • Pregnancy and preconception care
    • Fertility/Infertility
    • Contraception
    • Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS/HIV
  • Pregnancy and Drugs (Prescription and OTC) Taking prescription medications or over-the-counter drugs or supplements should be discussed with your doctor. There are some...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy and Drugs (Prescription and OTC) Article
    • Is it safe to use medicine while I am pregnant?
    • How should I decide whether to use a medicine while I am pregnant?
    • Where do doctors and nurses find out about using medicines during pregnancy?
    • How do prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicine labels help my doctor choose the right medicine for me when I am pregnant?
    • What if I'm thinking about getting pregnant?
    • Is it safe to use medicine while I am trying to become pregnant?
    • What if I get sick and need to use medicine while I am pregnant?
    • I have a health problem. Should I stop using my medicine while I am pregnant?
    • Are vitamins safe for me while I am pregnant?
    • Are herbal remedies or natural products safe for me when I am pregnant?
    • In the future, will there be better ways to know if medicines are safe to use during pregnancy?
    • For more information
  • Pain Relief Options for Childbirth Women experience and tolerate pain differently. For some pregnant women, focused breathing is all they need to get through labor...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pain Relief Options for Childbirth Article
    • Labor and Delivery: Pain control options introduction
    • Regional anesthesia: spinal and epidural blocks
    • Local anesthesia
    • Pudendal block
    • Narcotics
    • Nitrous oxide
  • Smoking During Pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth, low birth weight or premature birth, and more....learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoking During Pregnancy Article
    • Smoking during pregnancy facts
    • How does smoking affect a pregnant woman and her baby?
    • Is any amount of smoking safe in pregnancy?
    • What are the risks of secondhand smoke in pregnancy?
    • Can nicotine replacement products be used during pregnancy to quit smoking?
  • Breastfeeding: Common Breastfeeding Challenges Breastfeeding an infant can cause common challenges both for the mother an infant. Some challenges include sore nipples, low milk...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breastfeeding: Common Breastfeeding Challenges Article
    • Common breastfeeding challenge facts*
    • Common breastfeeding challenges overview
    • Sore nipples
    • Low milk supply
    • Oversupply of milk
    • Engorgement
    • Plugged ducts
    • Breast infection (mastitis)
    • Fungal infections
    • Nursing strike
    • Inverted, flat, or very large nipples
    • Breastfeeding a baby with health problems
    • Breastfeeding and special situations
  • Treating the Flu in People with Health Risks Certain portions of the population are at an increased risk of suffering serious complications from the flu. Some of these...learn more »
    In This Article
    Treating the Flu in People with Health Risks Article
    • Treating the flu in people with health risks facts*
    • Do you have Asthma, Diabetes or Chronic Heart Disease?
    • Why am I at greater risk of serious flu complications?
    • Can the flu be treated?
    • What should I do if I think I have the flu?
    • Should I still get a flu vaccine?
    • What are the benefits of antiviral drugs?
    • What are the possible side effects of antiviral drugs?
    • When should antiviral drugs be taken for treatment?
    • What antiviral drugs are recommended?
    • How long should antiviral drugs be taken?
    • Can children and pregnant women take antiviral drugs?
    • Who should take antiviral drugs?
    • What are the health and age factors that are known to increase a person's risk of getting serious complications from the flu?
  • Pregnancy: Swine Flu and the H1N1 Vaccine Pregnant and women who are breastfeeding are encouraged to receive the seasonal flu shot as well as the 2009 H1N1 influenza...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Swine Flu and the H1N1 Vaccine Article
    • Pregnancy and H1N1 influenza (swine flu) introduction
    • What if I am pregnant and I get 2009 H1N1?
    • What can I do to protect myself, my baby and my family?
    • Is it safe for pregnant women to get a flu shot?
    • What are the symptoms of seasonal and 2009 H1N1 flu?
    • What should I do if I get sick?
    • How is 2009 H1N1 flu treated?
    • When should I get emergency medical care?
    • Why does CDC advise pregnant women to receive the 2009 H1N1 influenza (flu) vaccine (shot)?
    • Will the seasonal flu shot also protect against the 2009 H1N1 flu?
    • Are there flu vaccines that pregnant women should not get?
    • Can the seasonal flu shot and the 2009 H1N1 flu shot be given at the same time?
    • Is the 2009 H1N1 flu shot safe for pregnant women?
    • What are the possible side effects of the 2009 H1N1 flu shots?
    • What about the H1N1 nasal spray vaccine?
    • What about breastfeeding and the H1N1 influenza and vaccinations?