Pregnancy Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Pregnancy. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Pregnancy or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Article
    • What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
    • What causes a urinary tract infection?
    • What are urinary tract infection symptoms and signs?
    • When should people seek medical care for a UTI?
    • How do physicians diagnose a urinary tract infection?
    • Are there home remedies for a urinary tract infection?
    • What is the treatment for a urinary tract infection?
    • What follow-up is needed for a urinary tract infection?
    • Is it possible to prevent a urinary tract infection?
    • What is the prognosis of a urinary tract infection?
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with rickets, cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe asthma in children and cognitive...learn more »
  • Sciatica Sciatica pain, caused by irritation of the sciatic nerve, typically radiates from the low back to behind the thigh to below the...learn more »
  • Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is blood pressure that is so low that it causes symptoms or signs due to the...learn more »
  • Constipation Constipation is defined medically as fewer than three stools per week and severe constipation as less than one stool per week....learn more »
    In This Article
    Constipation Article
    • Constipation facts
    • What is constipation?
    • What causes constipation?
    • Medications that cause constipation
    • Other causes of constipation
    • What are constipation symptoms?
    • How is constipation evaluated (diagnosed)?
    • What treatments are available for constipation?
    • Home remedies and OTC medications to treat constipation
    • Prescription drugs to treat constipation
    • Other treatments for constipation
    • What is the approach to the evaluation and treatment of constipation?
    • When should I seek medical care for chronic constipation?
    • What's new in the treatment of constipation?
  • Lower Back Pain There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Lower Back Pain Article
    • Low back pain facts
    • What is the anatomy of the low back?
    • What is the function of the low back?
    • What are common causes of lower back pain?
    • What are other causes of lower back pain?
    • What are uncommon causes of low back pain?
    • What are other symptoms and signs sometimes associated with low back pain?
    • How is low back pain diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for low back pain?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for low back pain?
    • Can low back pain be prevented?
  • Blood Clots Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins,...learn more »
  • Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Thrush is an infection of the mouth caused by the candida fungus. Symptoms of Thrush include pain or difficulty swallowing, a...learn more »
  • Vaginal Bleeding Normal vaginal bleeding (menorrhea) occurs through the process of menstruation. Abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vaginal Bleeding Article
    • Vaginal bleeding facts
    • What is normal vaginal bleeding?
    • What is abnormal vaginal bleeding?
    • What conditions cause abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are ovulating regularly?
    • What conditions cause vaginal bleeding after menopause or abnormal vaginal bleeding in women who are not ovulating regularly?
    • What causes vaginal bleeding during or after sexual intercourse?
    • What causes abnormal vaginal bleeding during pregnancy?
    • What diagnostic tests are used to evaluate abnormal vaginal bleeding?
    • How is irregular vaginal bleeding treated?
  • Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy located outside the inner lining of the uterus. The majority of ectopic pregnancies occur in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Ectopic Pregnancy Article
    • Ectopic pregnancy facts
    • What is an ectopic pregnancy?
    • What are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy?
    • How is ectopic pregnancy diagnosed?
    • What is the health risk of an ectopic pregnancy?
    • What treatment options are available for ectopic pregnancy?
  • Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction (SI Joint Pain) Sacroiliac joint (SI) dysfunction is a general term to reflect pain in the SI joints. Causes of SI joint pain include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction (SI Joint Pain) Article
    • What are the sacroiliac (SI) joints?
    • What is sacroiliac joint dysfunction?
    • What are the causes of sacroiliac joint dysfunction?
    • What are sacroiliac joint dysfunction symptoms?
    • How is sacroiliac joint dysfunction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for sacroiliac joint dysfunction?
    • How can sacroiliac joint dysfunction be prevented?
  • Enterovirus (Non-Polio Enterovirus Infection) Non-polio enteroviruses cause a variety of infections, including aseptic meningitis, hand, foot, and mouth disease, herpangina,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Enterovirus (Non-Polio Enterovirus Infection) Article
    • Enterovirus facts
    • What is an enterovirus?
    • What types of illnesses do enteroviruses cause?
    • What are causes and risk factors for an enterovirus infection?
    • What are symptoms and signs of an enterovirus infection in children and adults?
    • How do physicians diagnose an enterovirus infection?
    • What is the treatment for an enterovirus infection?
    • Non-polio enterovirus outbreaks, including enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)
    • What are complications of an enterovirus infection?
    • What is the prognosis of an enterovirus infection?
    • Is it possible to prevent an enterovirus infection? Is there a vaccine for enteroviruses?
    • What is the latest news about the enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) outbreak?
    • Where can people find more information about enterovirus infections?
  • Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) usually is caused from bacteria that have spread from the bladder from a UTI (urinary tract...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) Article
    • Kidney infection facts
    • What is the function of the kidneys?
    • Where are the kidneys located?
    • What is a kidney infection?
    • What are the causes of kidney infection?
    • What are risk factors for kidney and urinary tract infection?
    • Is screening recommended for UTI or kidney infection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of kidney infection?
    • How is kidney infection diagnosed?
    • What are different types of kidney infection?
    • What are the common bacteria that cause kidney infections?
    • What is the treatment for kidney infection?
    • Are there foods I should avoid if I have a kidney infection?
    • Can kidney infection be prevented?
  • Bladder Infection (Cystitis) Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder, usually caused by bacteria or, rarely, by Candida. Certain people, including...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bladder Infection (Cystitis) Article
    • What is a bladder infection?
    • What causes bladder infections?
    • What are some risk factors for bladder infection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a bladder infection in women?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a bladder infection in men?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a bladder infection in children?
    • How is a bladder infection diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a bladder infection?
    • Are home remedies effective for a bladder infection?
    • How is a bladder infection during pregnancy treated?
    • What are potential complications of a bladder infection?
    • Can bladder infections be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for a bladder infection?
  • Genital Herpes in Women Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Symptoms of genital herpes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Genital Herpes in Women Article
    • Genital herpes in women facts
    • What is genital herpes?
    • What causes genital herpes?
    • How is genital herpes transmitted?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of genital herpes?
    • How is genital herpes diagnosed?
    • Can genital herpes be cured?
    • What is the treatment for genital herpes?
    • Are home remedies or natural treatments effective for genital herpes?
    • How is genital herpes managed in pregnancy?
    • What is the prognosis for genital herpes?
    • Can genital herpes be prevented?
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is an imbalance or overgrowth of certain types of bacteria within the vagina. Symptoms of bacterial vaginosis...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bacterial Vaginosis Article
    • What is bacterial vaginosis?
    • What is the cause of bacterial vaginosis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?
    • What are the complications of bacterial vaginosis?
    • How is bacterial vaginosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bacterial vaginosis?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for bacterial vaginosis?
    • Can bacterial vaginosis be prevented?
  • Yeast Infection (in Women and Men) Vaginal yeast infections in women are caused by an organism called Candida albicans. Symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection...learn more »
    In This Article
    Yeast Infection (in Women and Men) Article
    • Vaginal yeast infection facts
    • What is a vaginal yeast infection?
    • What causes a vaginal yeast infection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection?
    • How is a vaginal yeast infection diagnosed?
    • Are there home remedies to treat a vaginal yeast infection?
    • What over-the-counter medications are available to treat a vaginal yeast infection?
    • When are oral prescription medications used to treat a vaginal yeast infection?
    • Can a man get a yeast infection from his sexual partner?
    • What are the symptoms of a yeast infection in men?
    • What is the treatment for yeast infection in men?
    • How can vaginal yeast infections be prevented?
    • How can a man protect himself from contracting a yeast infection from his sexual partner?
  • Hair Loss There are many causes of scalp hair loss. This featured article covers the common ones such as patchy hair loss (alopecia areata,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hair Loss Article
    • Hair loss facts
    • What are causes of hair loss?
    • How do physicians classify hair loss?
    • What is alopecia areata?
    • What is traction alopecia?
    • What is trichotillomania?
    • What is tinea capitis?
    • What is generalized (diffuse) hair loss?
    • What is telogen effluvium?
    • What is androgenetic or androgenic alopecia ("male-pattern baldness," "female-pattern baldness")?
    • What treatment is there for hair loss in men?
    • What other options do people have for hair loss?
    • Is hair loss in women different than men?
    • What about pregnancy hair loss?
    • What specific treatments are there for hair loss in women?
    • What vitamins are good for hair loss?
    • Can itchy scalp cause hair loss?
    • How do people prevent hair loss?
  • Iron Deficiency Iron is a mineral our bodies need. Iron deficiency is a condition resulting from not enough iron in the body. It is the most...learn more »
    In This Article
    Iron Deficiency Article
    • Iron and iron deficiency facts*
    • What is iron and why do we need it?
    • What is iron deficiency and why is it a concern?
    • What causes iron deficiency?
    • Who is most at risk for iron deficiency?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of iron deficiency?
    • How is iron deficiency diagnosed?
    • How is iron deficiency treated?
    • Can iron deficiency be prevented?
    • Babies
    • Young children (aged 1-5 years)
    • Adolescent girls and women of childbearing age
    • Pregnant women
    • How much iron do I need?
    • What are dietary sources of iron?
    • Dietary sources of Vitamin C
    • Iron overload and hemochromatosis
  • Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids (piles) are swollen veins in the rectum and anus. Causes include pregnancy, obesity, diarrhea, low-fiber diet, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hemorrhoids Article
    • Definition of hemorrhoid
    • What causes hemorrhoids?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a hemorrhoid?
    • What does a hemorrhoid look like?
    • How is the diagnosis of hemorrhoids made?
    • How are hemorrhoids treated?
    • OTC medications and home remedies for hemorrhoids
    • Non-surgical approaches
    • Hemorrhoid surgery
    • What is the prognosis for hemorrhoids?
  • Fainting (Syncope) Fainting, also referred to as blacking out, syncope, or temporary loss of consciousness has many causes. Often a person will have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fainting (Syncope) Article
    • Fainting (syncope) facts
    • Introduction to fainting (syncope)
    • What causes fainting (syncope)?
    • Heart rhythm changes
    • Heart structural conditions
    • Heart valve conditions
    • Sudden cardiac death
    • Postural hypotension
    • Vasovagal syncope
    • Anemia
    • Dehydration
    • Orthostatic hypotension
    • Vertebrobasilar artery disease
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Other medications and drugs
    • Pregnancy
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fainting (syncope)?
    • How is fainting (syncope) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fainting (syncope)?
    • Can fainting (syncope) be prevented?
  • Intestinal Gas (Belching, Bloating, Flatulence) Gas or "intestinal gas" means different things to different people. Everyone has gas and eliminates it by belching or farting...learn more »
    In This Article
    Intestinal Gas (Belching, Bloating, Flatulence) Article
    • Intestinal gas facts
    • What causes belching?
    • What causes bloating?
    • What causes flatulence (gas)?
    • What are the causes of intermittent abdominal bloating/distention?
    • How are belching, bloating/distention, and flatulence evaluated?
    • How is excessive intestinal gas treated?
  • Group B Strep Group B strep are bacteria called Streptococcus agalactiae that may sometimes cause infections both in a pregnant woman and her...learn more »
    In This Article
    Group B Strep Article
    • Group B strep facts
    • What is group B strep?
    • What causes group B strep infection?
    • How is group B strep transmitted?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of group B strep infection?
    • How is group B strep infection diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for group B strep?
    • What are the complications of group B strep infection?
    • Is it possible to prevent group B strep infection?
  • Vaginal Pain Vulvodynia or vaginal pain, genital pain is a condition in which women have chronic vulvar pain with no known cause. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vaginal Pain Article
    • Vaginal pain and vulvodynia facts
    • What are vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
    • What causes vaginal pain and/or vulvodynia?
    • What symptoms are characteristic of vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
    • What are risk factors for vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
    • What diagnostic tests are used to evaluate vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
    • How are vaginal pain and vulvodynia treated?
    • Medications and other medical therapies for vaginal pain and vulvodynia
    • Home remedies for vaginal pain and vulvodynia
    • What are the complications of vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for vaginal pain and vulvodynia?
  • Gum Disease Gum disease is caused by plaque and may result in tooth loss without proper treatment. Symptoms and signs of gum disease...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gum Disease Article
    • What is gum disease (gingivitis)?
    • What is the difference between gingivitis and periodontital disease?
    • What causes gum disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of gum disease?
    • How is gum disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for gum disease?
    • Are home remedies or natural treatments effective for gum disease?
    • Can gum disease be reversed?
    • Is gum disease associated with other health problems?
    • How is gum disease managed in children?
    • How is gum disease managed in pregnancy?
    • Can gum disease be prevented?
    • Is gum disease contagious?
  • Mercury Poisoning Mercury is a naturally occurring element found in water, soil, and the air. Mercury is also contained in some fish, some of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Mercury Poisoning Article
    • Mercury poisoning facts*
    • Mercury introduction
    • General information about mercury and mercury exposure
    • What are the health effects and symptoms of mercury exposure or poisoning?
    • What about mercury in batteries?
    • What about mercury in dental amalgam?
    • What about mercury in fish?
    • What about mercury in fluorescent light bulbs?
    • What about thimerosal in vaccines?
    • What about mercury in thermometers for fever?
    • What about mercury in recycling and waste disposal?
    • How are mercury spills cleaned up?
    • What are more mercury-containing products?
    • How can I find out about mercury exposure where I live?
  • Heart Murmur A heart murmur is the sound generated when blood flow within the heart is not smooth. Causes of heart murmurs can be functional,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Murmur Article
    • Heart murmur facts
    • What is a heart murmur?
    • What causes a heart murmur?
    • What are the risk factors for heart murmur?
    • What are the symptoms of a heart murmur?
    • When should I seek medical care for a heart murmur?
    • How is a heart murmur diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a heart murmur?
    • What are the complications of a heart murmur?
    • Can heart murmur be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for a patient with a heart murmur?
  • Fatigue Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatigue Article
    • Fatigue Facts
    • Fatigue introduction
    • What causes fatigue?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fatigue?
    • How is the cause of fatigue diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fatigue?
    • Can fatigue be prevented?
  • Alcoholism Alcoholism is a disease that includes alcohol craving and continued drinking despite repeated alcohol-related problems, such as...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alcoholism Article
    • Alcohol use disorder facts
    • What is alcohol abuse?
    • What is alcoholism?
    • What differentiates alcohol abuse from alcoholism?
    • What are risk factors for alcoholism?
    • What causes alcoholism? Is alcoholism hereditary?
    • What are alcohol use disorder symptoms and signs in teenagers, women, men, and the elderly?
    • How do physicians diagnose alcohol use disorder?
    • What are the stages of alcohol use disorder?
    • What is the treatment for alcohol use disorder?
    • What medications treat alcohol use disorder?
    • How can you tell if someone has a drinking problem?
    • Can an alcoholic just cut back or stop drinking?
    • Is there a safe level of drinking?
    • Is it safe to drink alcohol while pregnant?
    • How can someone find more information or get help or support to treat alcohol use disorder?
    • What are the long-term physical and psychological effects of alcohol use disorder?
    • What is codependency, and what is the treatment for codependency?
    • Is it possible to prevent alcohol use disorder?
    • What is the prognosis of alcohol use disorder?
  • Nausea and Vomiting Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nausea and Vomiting Article
    • Nausea and vomiting facts
    • Introduction to nausea and vomiting
    • What causes nausea or vomiting?
    • Acute gastritis and nausea and vomiting
    • Central causes of nausea and vomiting
    • Nausea and vomiting associated with illness
    • Nausea and vomiting from medications and medical treatments
    • Nausea and vomiting and bowel obstruction
    • Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (morning sickness)
    • Vomiting in infants
    • What are home remedies for nausea or vomiting?
    • When should I call the doctor regarding nausea and vomiting?
    • How is the source of nausea or vomiting diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for nausea or vomiting?
  • Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy Hypothyroidism during pregnancy can be treated with synthetic thyroid hormones to maintain the proper thyroid hormone balance....learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy Article
    • Hypothyroidism during pregnancy facts
    • Introduction
    • What is the thyroid gland?
    • What happens with thyroid disease?
    • How is hypothyroidism treated during pregnancy?
    • What are the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy?
    • How early does the mother's thyroid hormone affect the unborn baby?
    • What can be done to avoid the consequences of hypothyroidism in pregnancy?
  • Heartburn Heartburn is a burning sensation experienced from acid reflux (GERD). Symptoms of heartburn include chest pain, burning in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heartburn Article
    • Heartburn facts
    • Heartburn definition
    • What causes heartburn?
    • What are the symptoms of heartburn?
    • What foods and beverages aggravate heartburn?
    • How is heartburn diagnosed?
    • What are treatments and home remedies for heartburn?
    • Lifestyle changes
    • OTC and prescription medications
    • Surgical procedures
    • Heartburn during pregnancy
    • How can heartburn be prevented?
  • Miscarriage Miscarriage is the medical term for the spontaneous loss of pregnancy from conception to 20 weeks gestation. Risk factors for a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Miscarriage Article
    • What is a miscarriage?
    • How common is miscarriage?
    • What causes miscarriage?
    • What are the types of miscarriage?
    • What are signs and symptoms of a miscarriage?
    • How is miscarriage diagnosed?
    • What happens after a miscarriage?
    • What is the outlook for future pregnancies after a miscarriage?
    • Can miscarriage be prevented?
  • Melasma Melasma is a patchy brown discoloration of the skin on the face. When it occurs in pregnancy, it's called chloasma. Melasma is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Melasma Article
    • Melasma facts
    • What is melasma? What are signs of melasma?
    • What causes melasma?
    • Where is melasma seen on the body?
    • What are the types of melasma?
    • How is melasma diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for melasma?
    • What melasma treatments can I have at my doctor's office?
    • Do lasers work for melasma?
    • How does hydroquinone work in melasma?
    • Are there non-hydroquinone alternative treatments for melasma?
    • What is Tri-Luma?
    • What SPF is recommended for melasma?
    • Can melasma be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for melasma?
  • Cancer Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cancer Article
    • Cancer facts
    • What is cancer?
    • What causes cancer?
    • What are cancer symptoms and signs?
    • What are the different types of cancer?
    • How is cancer diagnosed?
    • How is cancer staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for cancer?
    • Can cancer be prevented?
    • Where can people find more information about cancer?
  • Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Preeclampsia is a condition in pregnant women marked by high blood pressure and a high level of protein in the urine. Eclampsia...learn more »
    In This Article
    Preeclampsia and Eclampsia Article
    • Preeclampsia and eclampsia facts
    • What are preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • What causes preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • Who is at risk for preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • What are the symptoms of preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • How are preeclampsia and eclampsia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • What are complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia?
    • Can preeclampsia and eclampsia be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for preeclampsia and eclampsia?
  • Varicose Veins Varicose vein: A dilated (widened) tortuous (twisting) vein, usually involving a superficial vein in the leg, often associated...learn more »
    In This Article
    Varicose Veins Article
    • Varicose veins and spider veins facts
    • What are veins and what is their function?
    • What are varicose veins and spider veins?
    • Varicose vein and spider vein pictures
    • Who gets varicose and spider veins?
    • What causes varicose and spider veins?
    • What are varicose vein symptoms?
    • How are varicose veins evaluated (diagnosed)?
    • What treatments are available for varicose veins and spider veins?
    • How can compression stockings help with varicose veins?
    • What is sclerotherapy?
    • Pictures of sclerotherapy treatment
    • What are potential side effects and complications of sclerotherapy?
    • What surgical procedures are available to treat varicose veins?
    • Can laser be used to treat varicose and spider veins?
    • What type of doctors provide treatments for varicose and spider veins?
    • What are the side effects of these treatments?
    • How can varicose veins be prevented?
  • Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cystic Fibrosis Article
    • Cystic fibrosis facts*
    • What is cystic fibrosis?
    • What are other names for cystic fibrosis?
    • What causes cystic fibrosis?
    • Is cystic fibrosis inherited?
    • Who is at risk for cystic fibrosis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
    • How is cystic fibrosis diagnosed?
    • How is cystic fibrosis treated?
    • Living with cystic fibrosis
    • What is the outlook for cystic fibrosis?
  • Head and Neck Cancer Head and neck cancer is cancer of the oral cavity, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, or lymph...learn more »
    In This Article
    Head and Neck Cancer Article
    • Head and neck cancer facts*
    • What is cancer?
    • What kinds of cancers are considered cancers of the head and neck?
    • How common are head and neck cancers?
    • What causes head and neck cancers?
    • What are common symptoms of head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers diagnosed?
    • What health professionals treat patients with head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers treated?
    • Are clinical trials (research studies) available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • What rehabilitation or support options are available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • Is follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve?
    • What can people who have had head and neck cancer do to reduce the risk of developing a second primary (new) cancer?
  • Infertility Infertility is the diminished ability to conceive a child. The primary cause of infertility in men is a sperm disorder. In women,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Infertility Article
    • Infertility facts*
    • What is infertility?
    • Is infertility a common problem?
    • Is infertility just a woman's problem?
    • What causes infertility in men?
    • What increases a man's risk of infertility?
    • What causes infertility in women?
    • What things increase a woman's risk of infertility?
    • How does age affect a woman's ability to have children?
    • How long should women try to get pregnant before calling their doctors?
    • How will doctors find out if a woman and her partner have fertility problems?
    • How do doctors treat infertility?
    • What medicines are used to treat infertility in women?
    • What is intrauterine insemination (IUI)?
    • What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)?
    • How often is assisted reproductive technology (ART) successful?
    • What are the different types of assisted reproductive technology (ART)?
    • Surrogacy
    • Gestational carrier
    • For more information
  • Cavities Learn more about cavities including symptoms, treatment, and prevention. See how tooth decay, plaque, and bacteria contribute to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cavities Article
    • What are cavities?
    • What are microcavities?
    • How does a cavity form?
    • What risk factors contribute to tooth decay?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of cavities?
    • How are cavities diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cavities?
    • What is CAMBRA?
    • Treatment of cavities during pregnancy
    • What is the prognosis of a cavity?
  • Bladder Spasms People who have bladder spasms, the sensation occurs suddenly and often severely. A spasm itself is the sudden, involuntary...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bladder Spasms Article
    • What do bladder spasms feel like?
    • Who is most likely to develop bladder spasms?
    • What causes bladder spasms?
    • What are nervous system disorders that lead to bladder spasms?
    • Which types of surgery may lead to bladder spasms?
    • What are other causes of bladder spasms?
    • What is the treatment for bladder spasms?
    • What are complementary and alternative therapies for bladder spasms?
    • When should someone see a doctor for bladder spasms?
  • Placenta Previa Placenta previa is a condition during pregnancy when the placenta lies low in the uterus either partly or completely blocking the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Placenta Previa Article
    • Placenta previa facts
    • What is placenta previa?
    • What are the types of placenta previa?
    • Who is at risk for placenta previa?
    • What causes placenta previa?
    • What are the symptoms of placenta previa?
    • How is placenta previa diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for placenta previa?
    • What are possible complications of placenta previa?
    • Can placenta previa be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for placenta previa?
  • Overactive Bladder Overactive bladder is a sudden involuntary contraction of the muscle wall of the bladder causing urinary urgency (an immediate...learn more »
    In This Article
    Overactive Bladder Article
    • Overactive bladder facts
    • What is an overactive bladder?
    • What are the causes of overactive bladder?
    • Are there any risk factors for overactive bladder?
    • What are symptoms of an overactive bladder?
    • How is overactive bladder diagnosed?
    • What are treatments for an overactive bladder?
    • What is the role of medications in treating overactive bladder?
    • What are treatments for the chronically incontinent?
    • What measures can be taken at home to prevent overactive bladder symptoms?
    • What are some of the complications of overactive bladder?
    • What is the prognosis for overactive bladder?
  • Prolactinoma (Pituitary Tumor) Prolactinoma is an adenoma (benign tumor) of the pituitary gland. Causes of many prolactinomas are unknown. Symptoms in women...learn more »
    In This Article
    Prolactinoma (Pituitary Tumor) Article
    • Prolactinoma facts
    • What is a prolactinoma (pituitary tumor)?
    • What is the normal function of prolactin?
    • What is the pituitary gland?
    • Where is the pituitary gland located?
    • What problems are caused by a pituitary tumor?
    • How common is a prolactinoma?
    • What are the types of prolactinomas?
    • What causes a prolactinoma?
    • What symptoms are caused by a prolactinoma?
    • Aside from a prolactinoma, what else can cause prolactin levels to rise?
    • How is a prolactinoma diagnosed?
    • What follow-up tests are done after a prolactinoma diagnosis?
    • What are the goals of treatment of a prolactinoma?
    • How is a prolactinoma treated?
    • What medications are used to treat prolactinomas?
    • What is the surgical treatment of a prolactinoma?
    • How do I choose a skilled neurosurgeon?
    • Does a prolactinoma affect pregnancy and oral contraceptives?
    • Do prolactinomas affect oral contraceptives?
    • Is osteoporosis a risk in women with high prolactin levels?
  • Vitamins and Calcium Supplements Vitamins are organic substances that are essential for the proper growth and functioning of the body. Calcium is a mineral...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vitamins and Calcium Supplements Article
    • What are vitamins, and why are they important?
    • Calcium
    • Vitamin D
    • Folic Acid
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B12
    • Vitamin B6
    • Thiamin (vitamin B1)
    • Niacin
    • Riboflavin
    • Vitamin K
  • Achondroplasia A common form of short stature, achondroplasia (dwarfism) is a genetic condition causing a disorder of bone growth. Complications...learn more »
    In This Article
    Achondroplasia Article
    • Achondroplasia facts
    • What is achondroplasia?
    • What are the characteristics of achondroplasia?
    • How is achondroplasia diagnosed?
    • What can be done for patients with achondroplasia?
    • How is achondroplasia inherited?
    • What if someone with achondroplasia has children?
    • What if two people with achondroplasia have children?
    • What gene causes achondroplasia?
  • Pregnancy: Trying to Conceive Trying to get conceive, or become pregnant can be challenging, frustrating, and an emotional rollercoaster for some couples....learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Trying to Conceive Article
    • Trying to Conceive Facts*
    • Fertility Awareness
    • Charting your fertility pattern
    • Basal body temperature method
    • Calendar method
    • Cervical mucus method
    • Infertility
    • Causes of infertility
    • Age
    • Health Problems
    • Lifestyle factors
    • Options for infertile couples
    • Treating infertility
    • Adoption
    • Foster care
    • Counseling and support groups
  • Care Before and During Pregnancy--Prenatal Care Second Source article from Government...learn more »
  • Shingles and Pregnancy Becoming infected with chickenpox during pregnancy could cause birth defects in your unborn child. Likewise, shingles could also...learn more »
    In This Article
    Shingles and Pregnancy Article
    • Shingles in pregnancy facts
    • What is shingles?
    • What do shingles look like?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of shingles?
    • How is shingles diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for shingles in pregnancy?
    • Antiviral medication to treat shingles
    • Pain medication to treat shingles
    • Antihistamine medication to treat shingles
    • What are the complications of shingles in pregnancy?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for shingles in pregnancy?
    • Can shingles in pregnancy be prevented?
  • Urinary Incontinence in Women Millions of women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). UI occurs twice as often in women as in men. There are many types of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Incontinence in Women Article
    • Urinary incontinence (UI) in women facts*
    • What is urinary incontinence?
    • What are the types of urinary incontinence?
    • How is incontinence evaluated?
    • How is incontinence treated?
    • Points to remember
    • Hope through research
    • For more information
  • Gestational Diabetes Gestational diabetes is a condition that is first recognized during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood sugar....learn more »
    In This Article
    Gestational Diabetes Article
    • What is gestational diabetes?
    • What causes gestational diabetes?
    • What are risk factors for gestational diabetes?
    • What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes?
    • How is gestational diabetes diagnosed?
    • What are the consequences of gestational diabetes for the baby and mother?
    • What is the treatment for gestational diabetes?
    • Can gestational diabetes be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for gestational diabetes?
  • Breastfeeding and Formula Feeding It's important to know whether you will breastfeed or bottle-feed your baby prior to delivery, as the breasts' ability to produce...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breastfeeding and Formula Feeding Article
    • Breastfeeding facts
    • When should we decide about breastfeeding?
    • Why is the choice so important?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of breastfeeding?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of formula feeding?
    • Can we use both forms of feedings for our baby?
    • Is there any special preparation required for breastfeeding?
    • When can breastfeeding begin?
    • What is the proper technique for breastfeeding?
    • When should breast pumps be used?
    • Should certain foods be avoided while breastfeeding?
    • How can one manage minor discomforts related to breastfeeding?
    • Clogged milk ducts
    • Sore nipples
    • When should one seek medical care for problems with breastfeeding?
    • Can supplements or medications increase a low milk supply?
    • Is it possible to breastfeed while pregnant?
    • Is smoking harmful when breastfeeding?
    • Do breast implants, surgeries, or reductions affect breastfeeding?
    • How should one wean a baby from breastfeeding?
  • Pregnancy Symptoms (Am I Pregnant?) Pregnancy symptoms can vary from woman to woman, but some common symptoms include mood changes, headaches, lower back pain,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy Symptoms (Am I Pregnant?) Article
    • 8 fast pregnancy symptoms facts
    • Pregnancy symptoms in general
    • 13 signs and symptoms of early pregnancy
    • 8 signs and symptoms of later pregnancy
    • 8 options for relief of pregnancy symptoms
  • Leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the bite of an infected sand fly. The most common types of leishmania infection are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Leishmaniasis Article
    • Leishmaniasis facts
    • What is leishmaniasis?
    • What are the different types of leishmaniasis?
    • What causes leishmaniasis? How is leishmaniasis transmitted?
    • What are risk factors for leishmaniasis?
    • What are leishmaniasis symptoms and signs?
    • How is leishmaniasis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for leishmaniasis?
    • What is the prognosis of leishmaniasis?
    • Can leishmaniasis be prevented?
    • Where can people get more information about leishmaniasis?
  • Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis (toxo) is a parasitic infection that causes flulike symptoms, swollen lymph nodes, and muscle aches and pains that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Toxoplasmosis Article
    • Toxoplasmosis facts
    • What is toxoplasmosis?
    • What is the cause of toxoplasmosis?
    • What factors increase the risk of acquiring toxo?
    • What are the usual symptoms of toxoplasmosis?
    • Why do some people develop severe problems from toxo?
    • Can toxoplasmosis develop into a more serious illness in babies?
    • What is meant by a baby developing "a more severe case of toxo"?
    • How is toxo diagnosed in the lab?
    • How can toxoplasmosis be prevented?
    • Am I able to keep my cat?
    • Once infected with toxo, is my cat always able to spread the infection to me?
    • What is the treatment for toxoplasmosis?
    • What is the prognosis for toxoplasmosis?
  • Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco can have negative health effects such as cancers, poor oral health (gum disease and tooth decay), infertility,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Smokeless Tobacco Article
    • Smokeless tobacco facts
    • What is smokeless tobacco?
    • What are the health risks of smokeless tobacco?
    • Cancer risk
    • Other health risks
    • Is smokeless tobacco safer than cigarette smoking?
    • What is being done to reduce the use of smokeless tobacco?
    • What treatments are available to help people quit using smokeless tobacco?
  • Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip Cleft palate and cleft lip are facial and oral defects that occur early in pregnancy. A cleft lip is a split of the two sides of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip Article
    • Cleft lip and cleft palate facts
    • What is a cleft lip? What is a cleft palate?
    • How often do cleft lip and cleft palate occur?
    • What are the causes and risk factors for developing a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • How do physicians diagnose a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • What are complications of a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • What is the treatment for a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • What is the prognosis for a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • Is it possible to prevent a cleft lip or cleft palate?
  • Congenital Heart Defects Congenital heart defects are heart problems that are present at birth. Genetics may play a role in some heart defects. Symptoms...learn more »
    In This Article
    Congenital Heart Defects Article
    • Congenital heart defects facts
    • What are congenital heart defects?
    • How the heart works
    • What are the types of congenital heart defects?
    • What are other names for congenital heart defects?
    • What causes congenital heart defects?
    • What are the signs and symptoms and signs of congenital heart defects?
    • How are congential heart defects diagnosed??
    • How are congenital heart defects treated?
    • Living with a congenital heart defect
  • Cancer Risk Factors Though it's difficult to say why some people develop cancer while others don't, research shows that certain risk factors increase...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cancer Risk Factors Article
    • Cancer risk factor facts*
    • What are cancer risk factors?
    • Growing older
    • Tobacco
    • Sunlight
    • Ionizing radiation
    • Certain chemicals and other substances
    • Some viruses and bacteria
    • Certain hormones
    • Family history of cancer
    • Alcohol
    • Poor diet, lack of physical activity, or being overweight
  • Braxton Hicks Contractions (False Labor) Braxton Hicks contractions are also known as false labor pains. Though these irregular uterine contractions may occur in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Braxton Hicks Contractions (False Labor) Article
    • Braxton-Hicks contractions facts
    • What are Braxton-Hicks contractions?
    • How do Braxton-Hicks contractions feel?
    • What can be done if Braxton-Hicks contractions are uncomfortable?
    • When should I call my doctor ?
  • Erythema Nodosum Erythema nodosum is a skin inflammation that results in reddish, painful, tender lumps most commonly located in the front of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Erythema Nodosum Article
    • What is erythema nodosum?
    • What causes erythema nodosum?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of erythema nodosum?
    • How is erythema nodosum diagnosed?
    • Can erythema nodosum be confused with other conditions?
    • How is erythema nodosum treated?
  • Arteriovenous Malformation Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital disorder of blood vessels in the brain, brainstem, or spinal cord that is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Arteriovenous Malformation Article
    • What are arteriovenous malformations?
    • What are the symptoms of arteriovenous malformations?
    • How do arteriovenous malformations damage the brain and spinal cord?
    • Where do neurological arteriovenous malformations tend to form?
    • What are the health consequences of arteriovenous malformations?
    • What other types of vascular lesions affect the central nervous system?
    • What causes vascular lesions?
    • How are arteriovenous malformations and other vascular lesions detected?
    • How can arteriovenous malformations and other vascular lesions be treated?
    • What research is being done?
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Consuming alcohol during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome, a group of conditions associated with mental, growth, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Article
    • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) facts
    • What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What causes fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What are risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What are symptoms and signs of fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • How do physicians diagnose fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What are the complications and long-term effects of fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis of fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • Is it possible to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • Is it safe to consume alcohol and breastfeed?
    • Where can people find more information about fetal alcohol syndrome?
  • Postpartum Depression Postpartum depression is a form of depression that occurs within a year after delivery. It is thought that rapid hormone changes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Postpartum Depression Article
    • Postpartum depression facts
    • What is postpartum depression? Are there different types of postpartum depression?
    • What are causes and risk factors for postpartum depression?
    • What are postpartum depression symptoms and signs?
    • How is postpartum depression diagnosed?
    • What are the treatments for postpartum depression?
    • What is the prognosis of postpartum depression?
    • Can postpartum depression be prevented?
    • Where can people get more information about postpartum depression?
    • Where can people get support for postpartum depression?
    • What research is being done on postpartum depression?
  • Birthmark Birthmarks and other abnormal skin pigmentation is caused by the body's inability to produce enough melanin. Abnormal skin...learn more »
    In This Article
    Birthmark Article
    • Birthmark facts
    • What is a birthmark?
    • What are the different types of birthmarks?
    • What are the characteristics of pigmented birthmarks?
    • What are the characteristics of vascular birthmarks?
    • What causes birthmarks?
    • Are any symptoms and signs associated with birthmarks?
    • What disorders are associated with birthmarks?
    • Can skin damage during delivery produce a birthmark?
    • Is it possible to remove or fade birthmarks?
    • Does insurance cover the cost of birthmark removal?
    • What is the treatment for birthmarks?
    • What is the prognosis of birthmarks?
  • Salmonella Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is typically caused by the consumption of contaminated foods. Symptoms of salmonellosis...learn more »
    In This Article
    Salmonella Article
    • Salmonella food poisoning facts
    • What is Salmonella food poisoning?
    • What causes Salmonella food poisoning?
    • What are risk factors for Salmonella food poisoning?
    • What are symptoms and signs of Salmonella poisoning?
    • How do physicians diagnose Salmonella food poisoning?
    • What is the treatment for Salmonella food poisoning?
    • What are complications of Salmonella food poisoning?
    • What is the prognosis of Salmonella food poisoning?
    • Is it possible to prevent Salmonella food poisoning?
  • Preeclampsia (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension) Preeclampsia is related to increased blood pressure and protein in the mother's urine. Preeclampsia typically begins after the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Preeclampsia (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension) Article
    • Preeclampsia Facts*
    • What Is High Blood Pressure?
    • What Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy?
    • What Is Preeclampsia?
    • How Common Are High Blood Pressure and Preeclampsia in Pregnancy?
    • Who Is More Likely to Develop Preeclampsia?
    • What Are the Symptoms of Preeclampsia and How Is It Detected?
    • How Can Women with High Blood Pressure Prevent Problems During Pregnancy?
    • Does Hypertension or Preeclampsia During Pregnancy Cause Long-Term Heart and Blood Vessel Problems?
  • Pregnancy: Bleeding During the First Trimester Bleeding during the first trimester of a pregnancy may be caused by implantation bleeding, changes in the cervix, infections, a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Bleeding During the First Trimester Article
    • Bleeding during the first trimester overview
    • When should you call your doctor about bleeding during the first trimester?
    • What is implantation bleeding during the first trimester?
    • What are other causes of bleeding during the first trimester?
  • Moles Moles are small skin growths that may appear flat or raised and are often tan, brown, black, reddish brown, or skin colored. They...learn more »
    In This Article
    Moles Article
    • Moles facts
    • What are moles?
    • What causes moles, and what are risk factors for developing moles?
    • What types of moles are there?
    • What are liver spots or age spots?
    • What are seborrheic keratoses?
    • Who is more prone to getting moles?
    • Does having more moles increase one's chance of getting melanoma?
    • Do moles ever disappear spontaneously?
    • Which skin cancers look like moles?
    • How can moles be prevented?
    • How can moles be treated? What are different types of mole removal?
    • Is there a blood test or X-ray to diagnose moles?
  • Chlamydia In Women Chlamydia, a type of bacteria that causes an infection, is spread through sexual contact. Most of the time, women with chlamydia...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chlamydia In Women Article
    • Chlamydia facts
    • What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
    • What is chlamydia?
    • What are the symptoms of chlamydia?
    • How is chlamydia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for chlamydia?
  • Syphilis In Women Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease, is caused by a microscopic, wormlike bacterial organism called a spirochete. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Syphilis In Women Article
    • Syphilis facts
    • What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
    • What is syphilis?
    • What are the symptoms of syphilis?
    • How is syphilis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for syphilis?
    • Syphilis pictures
  • Fetal Movement: Feeling Baby Kick Week-by-Week Pregnancy can be one of the most joyous time in a couples life. Learn what your baby's first movements may feel like week by...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fetal Movement: Feeling Baby Kick Week-by-Week Article
    • Fetal Movement Introduction
    • When Will I Feel My Baby Kicking?
    • What Does the Baby Kicking Feel Like?
    • How Often Should I Feel My Baby Moving?
    • Should I Monitor My Baby's Kicking?
    • What If You Don't Feel Your Baby Moving?
    • Timeline of Baby Movement
  • German Measles (Rubella) German measles is a disease that's caused by a virus. Symptoms include rash and fever for two to three days. The MMR (measles,...learn more »
    In This Article
    German Measles (Rubella) Article
    • What is rubella (German measles)?
    • What are rubella symptoms and signs?
    • What are the complications of rubella?
    • How is rubella spread from person to person?
    • Can rubella be prevented with a vaccine?
    • Does my child need the rubella vaccine (MMR)?
    • As an adult, do I need the rubella vaccine (MMR)?
  • Secondhand Smoke Secondhand smoke can cause illness and disease in nonsmokers. Some of these conditions include lung cancer, heart disease,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Secondhand Smoke Article
    • Secondhand smoke facts
    • What is secondhand smoke?
    • What causes secondhand smoke?
    • What are the health risks of secondhand smoke?
    • Lung cancer and secondhand smoke
    • Cardiovascular disease and secondhand smoke
    • Other lung diseases and secondhand smoke
    • Secondhand smoke and other effects on children
    • Secondhand smoke and the effects on pregnant women
    • Secondhand smoke and the possible link to breast cancer
    • Is there a safe level of secondhand smoke?
    • What can be done about secondhand smoke exposure?
    • What is thirdhand smoke?
  • Pregnancy Body Changes and Discomforts Pregnancy can bring challenges like weight gain, stretch marks, varicose veins, heartburn, constipation, hemorrhoids, problems...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy Body Changes and Discomforts Article
    • Introduction
    • Body aches
    • Breast changes
    • Constipation
    • Dizziness
    • Fatigue, sleep problems
    • Heartburn and indigestion
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Itching
    • Leg cramps
    • Morning sickness
    • Nasal problems
    • Numb or tingling hands
    • Stretch marks, skin changes
    • Swelling
    • Urinary frequency and leaking
    • Varicose veins
  • Pregnancy Planning Pregnancy planning is an important step in preparation for starting or expanding a family. Planning for a pregnancy includes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy Planning Article
    • Pregnancy planning facts
    • What is pregnancy planning?
    • What are pre-pregnancy planning goals?
    • What is a pregnancy calendar or calculator?
    • How soon can a woman start trying to conceive after stopping birth control?
    • What are dietary considerations for pregnancy planning?
    • How much weight gain is recommended in pregnancy?
    • What about alcohol consumption and pregnancy planning?
    • What infections should be avoided in pregnancy?
    • Should I exercise when pregnant?
    • Is it safe to have sexual intercourse during pregnancy?
    • Is air travel safe for pregnant women?
    • Do medications need to be stopped when planning pregnancy or when a woman becomes pregnant?
  • Stretch Marks Stretch marks occur in the dermis, the elastic middle layer of skin that allows it to retain its shape. When the skin is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stretch Marks Article
    • Stretch mark facts
    • What are stretch marks?
    • What causes stretch marks?
    • What are risk factors for stretch marks?
    • What are symptoms and signs of stretch marks?
    • How are stretch marks diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for stretch marks?
    • Are there any home remedies for stretch marks?
    • What is the prognosis of stretch marks?
    • Can stretch marks be prevented?
  • Pregnancy: Eating Right When Pregnant The amount of weight you should gain during pregnancy depends on your body mass index (BMI) before you became pregnant. Although...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Eating Right When Pregnant Article
    • Eating right when pregnant introduction
    • Goals for healthy eating when pregnant
    • Foods to avoid when pregnant
    • What to eat when pregnant and don't feel well
    • Can I diet while pregnant?
    • Can I eat a "low carb" diet when pregnant?
    • Can I maintain my vegetarian diet when pregnant?
    • Why do I need more calcium when pregnant?
    • How can I get enough calcium if I'm lactose intolerant?
    • Should I take a calcium supplement during pregnancy?
    • Why do I need more iron during pregnancy?
    • What are good sources of iron?
    • Should I take an iron supplement during pregnancy?
    • Food cravings during pregnancy
  • Travel Medicine Travelers should prepare for their trip by visiting their physician to get the proper vaccinations and obtain the necessary...learn more »
    In This Article
    Travel Medicine Article
    • Why should travelers see a physician before they leave on a trip?
    • What diseases occur in travelers, and how can disease be prevented?
    • Traveler's diarrhea
    • Malaria
    • Meningococcal meningitis
    • Yellow fever
    • Hepatitis A
    • Typhoid fever
    • Polio
    • Cholera
    • What about diseases for which there is no vaccine or preventive medication?
    • What is safe to eat and drink while traveling?
    • What can I do to avoid insect bites?
    • What should be in my travel first aid kit?
    • What are the medical concerns with jet lag?
    • What if I have a medical condition or a chronic disease?
    • What if I'm pregnant?
    • What about traveling with children?
    • Where can I find additional information?
  • Listeria Listeria is a type of bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Listeriosis symptoms include diarrhea, nausea and fever. Pregnant...learn more »
    In This Article
    Listeria Article
    • Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes infection) facts
    • What is listeriosis? What causes listeriosis?
    • What are listeriosis symptoms and signs?
    • What are the risk factors for listeriosis?
    • How is listeriosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for listeriosis?
    • How does a person get listeriosis?
    • Can listeriosis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) for Listeria infections?
    • If a person has eaten recalled food potentially contaminated with Listeria, what should he or she do?
    • What is the government doing about listeriosis?
  • Pain Relief Options for Childbirth Women experience and tolerate pain differently. For some pregnant women, focused breathing is all they need to get through labor...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pain Relief Options for Childbirth Article
    • Labor and Delivery: Pain control options introduction
    • Regional anesthesia: spinal and epidural blocks
    • Local anesthesia
    • Pudendal block
    • Narcotics
    • Nitrous oxide
  • Birth Control (Types and Options) There are a number of different methods of birth control to include: barrier methods, IUDs, hormonal methods, natural methods,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Birth Control (Types and Options) Article
    • Birth control facts
    • Introduction to birth control types and options
    • Summary and conclusions
  • Q Fever Q fever is a highly infectious disease that causes high fever, diarrhea, cough, and sweating. Infected animals may transmit Q...learn more »
    In This Article
    Q Fever Article
    • Q fever facts
    • What is Q fever?
    • Where does the name Q fever come from? What causes Q fever?
    • How does Q fever spread?
    • Who is at risk for getting Q fever?
    • Are there different forms of Q fever?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of Q fever?
    • How do physicians diagnose Q fever?
    • Is Q fever deadly?
    • Is Q fever contagious?
    • What is the danger of getting Q fever while pregnant?
    • What complications may arise with Q fever?
    • What is the prognosis for Q fever?
    • If it is not Q fever, what else could it be?
    • What should people do if they have been exposed to Q fever?
    • Is there any treatment for Q fever?
    • Is there a vaccine against Q fever?
    • Is Q fever a bioterrorism threat?
    • Where can people find more information about Q fever?
  • Pregnancy and Drugs (Prescription and OTC) Taking prescription medications or over-the-counter drugs or supplements should be discussed with your doctor. There are some...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy and Drugs (Prescription and OTC) Article
    • Is it safe to use medicine while I am pregnant?
    • How should I decide whether to use a medicine while I am pregnant?
    • Where do doctors and nurses find out about using medicines during pregnancy?
    • How do prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicine labels help my doctor choose the right medicine for me when I am pregnant?
    • What if I'm thinking about getting pregnant?
    • Is it safe to use medicine while I am trying to become pregnant?
    • What if I get sick and need to use medicine while I am pregnant?
    • I have a health problem. Should I stop using my medicine while I am pregnant?
    • Are vitamins safe for me while I am pregnant?
    • Are herbal remedies or natural products safe for me when I am pregnant?
    • In the future, will there be better ways to know if medicines are safe to use during pregnancy?
    • For more information
  • Smoking During Pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth, low birth weight or premature birth, and more....learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoking During Pregnancy Article
    • Smoking during pregnancy facts
    • How does smoking affect a pregnant woman and her baby?
    • Is any amount of smoking safe in pregnancy?
    • What are the risks of secondhand smoke in pregnancy?
    • Can nicotine replacement products be used during pregnancy to quit smoking?
  • Breastfeeding: Common Breastfeeding Challenges Breastfeeding an infant can cause common challenges both for the mother an infant. Some challenges include sore nipples, low milk...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breastfeeding: Common Breastfeeding Challenges Article
    • Common breastfeeding challenge facts*
    • Common breastfeeding challenges overview
    • Sore nipples
    • Low milk supply
    • Oversupply of milk
    • Engorgement
    • Plugged ducts
    • Breast infection (mastitis)
    • Fungal infections
    • Nursing strike
    • Inverted, flat, or very large nipples
    • Breastfeeding a baby with health problems
    • Breastfeeding and special situations
  • Reproductive Health Reproductive health encompasses the beginning of menstruation for women, choosing the right birth control method for you and your...learn more »
    In This Article
    Reproductive Health Article
    • Menstruation and menopause
    • Pregnancy and preconception care
    • Fertility/Infertility
    • Contraception
    • Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS/HIV
  • Pregnancy: Swine Flu and the H1N1 Vaccine Pregnant and women who are breastfeeding are encouraged to receive the seasonal flu shot as well as the 2009 H1N1 influenza...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy: Swine Flu and the H1N1 Vaccine Article
    • Pregnancy and H1N1 influenza (swine flu) introduction
    • What if I am pregnant and I get 2009 H1N1?
    • What can I do to protect myself, my baby and my family?
    • Is it safe for pregnant women to get a flu shot?
    • What are the symptoms of seasonal and 2009 H1N1 flu?
    • What should I do if I get sick?
    • How is 2009 H1N1 flu treated?
    • When should I get emergency medical care?
    • Why does CDC advise pregnant women to receive the 2009 H1N1 influenza (flu) vaccine (shot)?
    • Will the seasonal flu shot also protect against the 2009 H1N1 flu?
    • Are there flu vaccines that pregnant women should not get?
    • Can the seasonal flu shot and the 2009 H1N1 flu shot be given at the same time?
    • Is the 2009 H1N1 flu shot safe for pregnant women?
    • What are the possible side effects of the 2009 H1N1 flu shots?
    • What about the H1N1 nasal spray vaccine?
    • What about breastfeeding and the H1N1 influenza and vaccinations?
  • Treating the Flu in People with Health Risks Certain portions of the population are at an increased risk of suffering serious complications from the flu. Some of these...learn more »
    In This Article
    Treating the Flu in People with Health Risks Article
    • Treating the flu in people with health risks facts*
    • Do you have Asthma, Diabetes or Chronic Heart Disease?
    • Why am I at greater risk of serious flu complications?
    • Can the flu be treated?
    • What should I do if I think I have the flu?
    • Should I still get a flu vaccine?
    • What are the benefits of antiviral drugs?
    • What are the possible side effects of antiviral drugs?
    • When should antiviral drugs be taken for treatment?
    • What antiviral drugs are recommended?
    • How long should antiviral drugs be taken?
    • Can children and pregnant women take antiviral drugs?
    • Who should take antiviral drugs?
    • What are the health and age factors that are known to increase a person's risk of getting serious complications from the flu?
  • Breast Cancer During Pregnancy Breast cancer occurs in about 1 in every 1,000 pregnant women. Treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy involves surgery, but...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Cancer During Pregnancy Article
    • Introduction
    • How is breast cancer diagnosed in pregnant women?
    • What if I do have cancer? Will I have to lose my baby?
    • Can I breastfeed my baby if I have breast cancer?
    • I had breast cancer, but I have been successfully treated for it. Is it OK for me to get pregnant? Will this harm either me or my baby?