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- Polio facts
- What is polio?
- What is the history of polio?
- What causes polio?
- What are risk factors for polio? How does polio spread?
- What are polio symptoms and signs?
- How do physicians diagnose polio?
- What is the treatment for polio?
- What is the prognosis of polio?
- Is it possible to prevent polio? Is there a polio vaccine?
- Polio-like illness
What is the history of polio?
The history of polio dates back about 6,000 years. Egyptian mummies have been found with withered and malformed limbs that likely occurred because of polio infection. In 1789, the first description of polio was recorded and in 1834 the first documented epidemic occurred on the island of St. Helena. In 1855, Dr. Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne showed polio involved the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. The Iron lung was developed in the late 1920s to help people with polio breathe. One of the most famous people who had polio was U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945). The polio virus was first cultivated in tissue culture (1949), and in 1951, the three types of poliovirus were isolated and identified. During 1954, the first large-scale trial of the vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk (dead virus vaccine) was administered by injection, and in 1958, Dr. Albert Sabin's vaccine (live attenuated virus) was administered orally. In 2000, the U.S. switched to using inactivated polio vaccine by injection. Other countries still may use the oral polio vaccine. Because polio viruses survive only in humans and are transmitted only by human contact, the World Health Organization (WHO) is trying to eradicate polio worldwide. This attempt has been relatively successful with a 99% decrease in polio infections worldwide. However, some countries in Africa and the Middle East still have new infections caused by polio because of areas that cannot be reached by vaccine workers. Unfortunately, when there is war in these regions, polio makes a comeback because vaccine efforts are interrupted. The WHO still believes that polio may be eradicated like smallpox in the near future.