Table of Contents
- Pneumonia facts
- What is pneumonia?
- What are the different types of pneumonia?
- What are the different types of pneumonia? (Continued)
- Is pneumonia contagious?
- What is the contagious period for pneumonia?
- What causes pneumonia?
- What are risk factors for pneumonia?
- What is the incubation period for pneumonia?
- What are pneumonia symptoms and signs?
- How long does pneumonia last?
- How do doctors diagnose pneumonia?
- What is the treatment for pneumonia?
- What types of doctors treat pneumonia?
- What are complications of pneumonia?
- What is the prognosis of pneumonia?
- Is it possible to prevent pneumonia? Is there a pneumonia vaccine?
- Are side effects associated with the pneumonia vaccine?
Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia
Pneumonia often starts with symptoms typical of a cold or upper respiratory infection, like sore throat, nasal congestion, and cough. As the infection develops in the lung, high fever is apparent along with chills and a cough that produces thick sputum. Chest pain can occur if the outer layer (pleura) of the lungs is involved in the inflammatory process.
- Pneumonia is inflammation of the airspaces in the lungs, most commonly due to an infection.
- Pneumonia may be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi; less frequently by other causes.
- The most common bacterial type that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include
- Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is acquired outside of the health-care setting and is typically less severe than hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP).
- About 20% of those with CAP require treatment in a hospital.
- Antibiotics treat pneumonia by controlling the bacterial or fungal infection. The initial choice of antibiotic depends on the organism presumed to be causing the infection as well as local patterns of antibiotic resistance.
- Pneumonia can be fatal in up to 30% of severe cases that are managed in the intensive-care setting.
- Complications of pneumonia include sepsis, pleural effusion, and empyema.
- Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the most common viral causes of pneumonia.
- Antiviral medications may be used to treat pneumonia caused by some types of viruses.
- Most kinds of bacterial pneumonia are not highly contagious, but tuberculosis and Mycoplasma pneumonia are exceptions.
- A chest X-ray is typically done to diagnose pneumonia.
- Risk factors for pneumonia include age over 65 or under 2, having certain chronic medical conditions (including underlying lung disease, cigarette smoking, alcoholism, and neurological problems), or sustaining injuries that interfere with swallowing or coughing.
- Vaccinations are available against several common organisms that are known to cause pneumonia. Continue Reading
American Lung Association. "Pneumonia Fact Sheet." <http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/influenza/in-depth-resources/pneumonia-fact-sheet.html>.
"Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia." Medscape.com. <http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/558518>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Pneumonia." Feb. 25, 2015. <http://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/index.html>.
United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Pneumococcal Vaccination: Who Needs It?" June 19, 2015. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/pneumo/vacc-in-short.htm>.
United States. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. "Types of Pneumonia." Mar. 1, 2011. <http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu/types.html>.
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