Table of Contents
What causes pleurisy?
Pleurisy can be caused by any of the following conditions:
- Infections: bacterial (including those that cause tuberculosis), fungi, parasites, or viruses
- Inhaled chemicals or toxic substances: exposure to some cleaning agents like ammonia
- Collagen vascular diseases: lupus, rheumatoid arthritis
- Cancers: for example, the spread of lung cancer or breast cancer to the pleura
- Tumors of the pleura: mesothelioma or sarcoma
- Congestion: heart failure
- Pulmonary embolism: blood clot inside the blood vessels to the lungs. These clots sometimes severely reduce blood and oxygen to portions of the lung and can result in death to that portion of lung tissue (termed lung infarction). This, too, can cause pleurisy.
- Obstruction of lymph channels: as a result of centrally located lung tumors
- Trauma: rib fractures or irritation from chest tubes used to drain air or fluid from the pleural cavity in the chest
- Certain drugs: drugs that can cause lupus-like syndromes (such as hydralazine [Apresoline], Procan [Pronestyl, Procan-SR, Procanbid - these brands no longer are available in the U.S.], phenytoin [Dilantin], and others)
- Abdominal processes: such as pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, gallbladder disease, and damage to the spleen.
- Pneumothorax: air in the pleural space, occurring spontaneously or from trauma.
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
3."Pleurisy and pneumothorax" by National Heart Lung and Blood Institute
4."2313 The Lung Pleurea" by OpenStax College - Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013.. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons
7."Thoracentesis" by National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute - Thoracentesis. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons