GENERIC NAME: pilocarpine oral
BRAND NAME: Salagen
DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Pilocarpine is a cholinergic drug, that is, a drug that mimics the effects of the chemical, acetylcholine which is produced by nerve cells. Acetylcholine serves as a messenger between nerve cells and between nerve cells and the organs they control. For example, acetylcholine is responsible for causing the salivary glands to make saliva and the lacrimal glands to make tears to lubricate the eyes. In addition to its effects on the salivary and lacrimal glands, acetylcholine reduces the production of fluid within the eye. Pilocarpine eye drops have been used for many years to treat glaucoma, a condition in which pressure within the fluid of the eye is abnormally elevated and ultimately damages the eye and impares vision. In 1994, an oral formulation of pilocarpine was approved by the FDA for the treatment of dry mouth caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, a treatment that damages the salivary glands and reduces their production of saliva. In 1998, the oral preparation was approved for the management of Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease that damages the salivary and lacrimal glands. Pilocarpine was first isolated from the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus (also called jaborandi) in 1875.
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