Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Phimosis is the inability to retract the foreskin behind the glans in males.
Phimosis is usually divided into physiologic and pathologic phimosis.
Physiologic phimosis is the normal condition in which children are born with
a tight foreskin and separation occurs during late childhood and early
Pathologic phimosis occurs due to infection, inflammation, or scarring and is
usually found in uncircumcised adult
What causes phimosis?
Physiologic phimosis is present at birth and resolves without intervention.
Most children will not have a fully retractable foreskin at birth, but do so as
they get older with the majority having a fully retractable foreskin by
Pathologic himosis is caused by scarring,
balanitis, and underlying medical
What are the symptoms of phimosis?
The inability of the foreskin to retract can lead to difficulty cleaning of
the area which can cause balanitis, there can be difficulty or painful urination, painful erection, or paraphimosis ( see below ).
How is phimosis diagnosed?
Your doctor can diagnose phimosis based on a thorough history and physical
examination. Additional tests are usually not necessary.
How is phimosis treated?
Treatment depends on the age of the male, severity, and resulting
The first choice of treatment is usually a steroid ointment that is locally
applied. This treatment has shown a success rate of over 70%. The ointment
softens the foreskin and is applied for 4 to 6 weeks. Once full retraction is
possible the ointment is discontinued.
If the steroid treatment is not successful, a circumcision might be
beneficial. This depends on the underlying symptoms.
Reviewed by John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP on 7/25/2013