Wayne Blocker, MD
Wayne Blocker, MD
Dr. Blocker received his degree from the University of Miami School of Medicine. He did his internship and residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of South Florida Affiliated Hospitals. Dr. Blocker is a board-certified in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and is a Fellow of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. He also is certified by the American Council of Gynecologic Endoscopists and has had advanced training in laparoscopic hysterectomy, reconstructive pelvic surgery, and urogynecology. Dr. Blocker has served as the Chair of the OBGYN Department and then, Chief of Staff at Brandon Regional Hospital. Dr. Blocker is in private practice in Florida.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In this Article
What is perimenopause?
Perimenopause refers to the time period that begins when the ovaries begin to decline in function and continues until menopause (defined as the total cessation of menstrual flow for one calendar year) has been reached. Perimenopause has been called the "change of life" or "transition period." It usually begins in the 40s, but may start as early as the late 30s. During this time, a woman may exhibit a number of symptoms that are largely due to abnormal hormonal fluctuations.
Perimenopause has the potential to become a difficult period in a woman's life, as the ovaries begin to become depleted in eggs and produce hormones in reduced amounts. It is important that each woman attempt to understand the alterations that her body is undergoing and attempt to proactively manage these physiological changes. Moreover, she should not attempt hide her feelings and symptoms from others involved in her life, as this may lead to misunderstanding and frustration. Professional help is available, and new products and technologies are constantly being developed to assist with the symptoms of perimenopause that may develop. With appropriate dialogue between a woman and her health-care professional, most women can navigate this potentially difficult period of her life.
1. Irregular vaginal bleeding or menses
The ovaries are responsible for the production of the hormone estrogen in a reproducible pattern. As the ovaries become deficient in eggs (ova), the production of estrogen becomes less regulated. Estrogen is the hormone that, when produced in the normal sequence and concentration, results in the orderly shedding of the uterine lining. If the estrogen production is not regular, the uterine lining or endometrium may be shed off in small amounts, resulting in irregular vaginal spotting. The time interval between ovulatory events may lengthen. During that longer interval the endometrium continues to grow and may become quite thick. When the ovary finally releases another egg and subsequent shedding of a thickened uterine lining occurs, the menstrual flow may be extremely heavy and associated with severe cramps.
2. Hot flashes or flushes
Hot flashes are episodic sensations of heat rising over the neck and facial areas of a woman's body, followed by profuse sweating. They can be extremely disturbing and may result in difficulties with concentration. Hot flashes are thought to be due to transient dilation of the blood vessels near the surface of the body due to estrogen deficiency. They frequently persist for years after menstruation has ceased (i.e. a woman has experienced menopause).
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