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- What disorders affect the penis?
- What is priapism?
- What causes priapism?
- How is priapism treated?
- What is Peyronie's disease?
- What causes Peyronie's disease?
- How is Peyronie's disease treated?
- What is balanitis?
- What causes balanitis?
- How is balanitis treated?
- What is phimosis?
- What causes phimosis?
- How is phimosis treated?
- What is paraphimosis?
- What causes paraphimosis?
- How is paraphimosis treated?
- What is penile cancer?
- What causes penile cancer?
- What are the symptoms of penile cancer?
- What treatments are given for penile cancer?
What causes paraphimosis?
Paraphimosis may occur after an erection or sexual activity, or as the result of injury to the head of the penis. With paraphimosis, the foreskin becomes stuck behind the ridge of the head of the penis. If this condition is prolonged, it can cause pain and swelling, and impair blood flow to the penis. In extreme cases, the lack of blood flow can result in the death of tissue (gangrene), and amputation of the penis may be necessary.
How is paraphimosis treated?
Treatment of paraphimosis focuses on reducing the swelling of the glans and foreskin. Applying ice may help reduce swelling, as may applying pressure to the glans to force out blood and fluid. If these measures fail to reduce swelling and allow the foreskin to return to its normal position, an injection of medication to help drain the penis may be necessary. In severe cases, a surgeon may make small cuts in the foreskin to release it. Circumcision also may be used as a treatment for paraphimosis.
What is penile cancer?
What causes penile cancer?
The exact cause of penile cancer is not known, but there are certain risk factors for the disease. A risk factor is anything that increases a person's chance of getting a disease. The risk factors for cancer of the penis may include the following:
- Uncircumcision: Men who are not circumcised at birth have a higher risk for getting cancer of the penis.
- Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection: HPV includes more than 100 types of viruses that can cause warts (papillomas). Certain types of HPV can infect the reproductive organs and the anal area. These types of HPV are passed from one person to another during sexual contact.
- Smoking: Smoking exposes the body to many cancer-causing chemicals that affect more than the lungs.
- Smegma: Oily secretions from the skin can accumulate under the foreskin of the penis. The result is a thick, bad-smelling substance called smegma. If the penis is not cleaned thoroughly, the presence of smegma can cause irritation and inflammation.
- Phimosis: This is a condition in which the foreskin becomes constricted and difficult to retract.
- Treatment for psoriasis: The skin disease psoriasis is sometimes treated with a combination of medication and exposure to ultraviolet light, which may increase a person's risk for penile cancer.
- Age: Over half of penile cancer occur in men over age 68.