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- Patient Comments: Penis Cancer - Stages
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- Penis cancer facts*
- What is penile cancer?
- What are causes and risk factors of penile cancer?
- What are signs and symptoms of penis cancer?
- What tests to health-care professionals use to diagnose penis cancer?
- What factors affect the prognosis and treatment of penile cancer?
- What are the stages of penile cancer?
- What are the treatment options for patients with penile cancer?
- What penis cancer treatments are being tested in clinical trials?
- What are penile cnacer treatment options by stage?
- What are treatment options for recurrent penile cancer?
Human papillomavirus infection may increase the risk of developing penile cancer.
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Risk factors for penile cancer include the following:
Circumcision may help prevent infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). A circumcision is an operation in which the doctor removes part or all of the foreskin from the penis. Many boys are circumcised shortly after birth. Men who were not circumcised at birth may have a higher risk of developing penile cancer.
Other risk factors for penile cancer include the following:
- Being age 60 or older.
- Having phimosis (a condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be pulled back over the glans).
- Having poor personal hygiene.
- Having many sexual partners.
- Using tobacco products.