Panic Disorder (cont.)

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How are panic attacks prevented?

Effective ways to prevent panic attacks for people who have had them include avoiding triggers for panic, like alcohol or stimulants like caffeine, diet pills, or cocaine.

Additional resources from WebMD Boots UK on Anxiety-Panic Disorders


American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. "Facts for Families: Panic Disorder in Children and Adolescents." 50 Nov. 2004.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: 2000.

American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Patients With Panic Disorder. 2nd ed. Arlington, VA: 2009.

Breslau, J., S. Aguilar-Gaxiola, K.S. Kendler, M. Su, et al. "Specifying Race-Ethnic Differences in Risk for Psychiatric Disorder in a U.S. National Sample." Psychological Medicine 36.1 Jan. 2006: 57-68.

Busch, F.N. and B.L. Milrod. "Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy." Psychiatric Times 25.2 Feb. 1, 2008.

Campbell, S.G., and A.A. Abbass. "Chest Pain -- Consider Panic Disorder." Canadian Family Physician 53.5 May 2007: 807-808.

Dannon, P.N., I. Iancu, K. Lowengrub, L. Grunhaus, and M. Kotler. "Recurrence of Panic Disorder During Pregnancy: A 7-Year Naturalistic Follow-up Study." Clinical Neuropharmacology 29.3 May-June 2006: 132-137.

Dannon, P.N., and K. Lowengrub. "Panic Disorder and Pregnancy: Challenges of Caring for Mother and Child." Psychiatric Times 25.3 Mar. 2006.

David, J.E., S.H. Yale, and H.J. Vidaillet. "Hyperventilation-Induced Syncope: No Need to Panic." Clinical Medicine and Research 1.2 (2003): 137-139.

Friedlander, A.H., S.R. Marder, E.C. Sung, and J.S. Child. "Panic Disorder: Psychopathology, Medical Management and Dental Implications." The Journal of the American Dental Association 135.6 (2004): 771-778.

Furukawa, T.A., and N. Watanabe. "Psychotherapy Plus Antidepressant for Panic Disorder With or Without Agoraphobia." The British Journal of Psychiatry 188 (2006): 305-312.

Gomez-Caminero, A., W.A. Blumentals, L.J. Russo, R.R. Brown, and R. Castilla-Puentes. "Does Panic Disorder Increase the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease? A Cohort Study of a National Managed Care Database." Psychosomatic Medicine 67 (2005): 688-691.

Goodwin, R.D., R. Lieb, M. Hoefler, H. Pfister, et at. "Panic Attack as a Risk Factor for Severe Psychopathology." American Journal of Psychiatry 161 Dec. 2004: 2207-2214.

Ham, P., D.B. Waters, and M.N. Oliver. "Treatment of Panic Disorder." American Family Physician 71.4 Feb. 15, 2005.

Johnson, M.R., A.G. Hartzema, T.L. Mills, J.M. De Leon, M. Yang, C. Frueh, and A. Santos. "Ethnic Differences in the Reliability and Validity of a Panic Disorder Screen." Ethnic Health 12.3 June 2007: 283-296.

Katon, W.J. "Panic Disorder." The New England Journal of Medicine 354 June 2006: 2360-2367.

Kelly, C.M., A.F. Jorm, and B.A. Kitchener. "Development of Mental Health First Aid Guidelines for Panic Attacks: a Delphi Study." Biomedical Central Psychiatry 9 (2009): 49.

Kessler, R.C., W. Tat-Chiu, R. Jin, A. Meron-Ruscio, et al. "The Epidemiology of Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication." Archives of General Psychiatry 63 (2006): 415-424.

Lau, K., W.G. McLean, D.P. Williams, and C.V. Howard. "Synergistic Interactions Between Commonly Used Food Additives in a Developmental Neurotoxicity Test." Toxicological Sciences 90.1 2006: 178-187.

Madaan, V. "Assessment of Panic Disorder Across the Life Span." Focus 6 Fall 2008: 438-444.

Marchesi, C. "Pharmacological Management of Panic Disorder." Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment 4.1 Feb. 2008: 93-106.

Merikangas, K.R., J.P. He, D. Brody, P.W. Fisher, K. Bourdon, and D.S. Koretz. "Prevalence and Treatment of Mental Disorders Among US Children in the 2001–2004 NHANES." Pediatrics 125 Jan. 2010: 75-81. National Institute of Mental Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Pande, A.C., M.H. Pollack, J. Crockatt, M. Greiner, G. Chouinard, et al. "Placebo-Controlled Study of Gabapentin Treatment of Panic Disorder." Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 20.4 Aug. 2000: 467-471.

Pincus, D.B., J.E. May, S.W. Whitton, S.G. Mattis, and D.H. Barlow. "Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence." Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 39.5 Sept. 2010: 638-49.

Pollack, M.H., et al. "Panic: Course, Complications and Treatment of Panic Disorder." Journal of Psychopharmacology 14.2.1 (2000): S25-30.

Rubinchik, S.M., A.S. Kablinger, and J.S. Gardner. "Medications for Panic Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder During Pregnancy." Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 7.3 (2005): 100-105.

Saeed, S.A., R.M. Bloch, and D.J. Antonacci. "Herbal and Dietary Supplements for Treatment of Anxiety Disorders." American Family Physician 76 Aug. 2007: 549-556.

Safren, S.A., B.S. Gershuny, P. Marzol, M. Otto, and M.H. Pollack. "History of Childhood Abuse in Panic Disorder, Social Phobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder." The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 190.7 July 2002: 453-456.

Sarisoy, G., O. Boke, A.C. Arik, and A.R. Sahin. "Panic Disorder With Nocturnal Panic Attacks: Symptoms and Comorbidities." European Psychiatry 23.3 Apr. 2008: 195-200.

Stores, G. "Clinical Diagnosis and Misdiagnosis of Sleep Disorders." Journal of Neurological Neurosurgical Psychiatry 78 (2007): 1293-1297.

Taborska, V. "Incidence of Latent Tetany in Patients With Panic Disorder." Cesk Psychiatry 91.3 July 1995: 183-190.

White, K.S., L.A. Payne, J.M. Gorman, et al. "Does maintenance CBT contribute to long-term treatment response of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia? A randomized controlled clinical trial." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 81.1 Feb. 2013: 47-57.

Yonkers, K.A., C. Zlotnick, and J. Allsworth, et al. "Is the Course of Panic Disorder the Same in Women and Men?" American Journal of Psychiatry 155 May 1998: 596-602.

Zabun, N., M.A.K. Azad, A. Rahman, M. Arifur, et al. "Comparative Analysis of Serum Manganese, Zinc, Calcium, Copper and Magnesium Level in Panic Disorder Patients." Biological Trace Element Research July 2009.

Zvolensky, M.J., and N.B. Schmidt. "Introduction to Anxiety Sensitivity." Behavior Modification 31.2 (2007): 139-144.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 9/10/2013

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