oxycodone, Oxycontin, Roxicodone, Oxect

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GENERIC NAME: oxycodone

BRAND NAMES: Oxycontin, Roxicodone, Oxecta

DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Oxycodone is a strong narcotic pain-reliever and cough suppressant similar to morphine, codeine, and hydrocodone. The precise mechanism of action is not known but may involve stimulation of opioid receptors in the brain. Oxycodone does not eliminate the sensation of pain but decreases discomfort by increasing the tolerance to pain. In addition to tolerance to pain, oxycodone also causes sedation and depression of respiration. The FDA approved oxycodone in 1976.

GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes

PRESCRIPTION: Yes

PREPARATIONS:

  • Tablets (Immediate Release): 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg.
  • Capsules (Immediate Release): 5 mg.
  • Tablets (Extended Release): 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80.
  • Oral Concentrate: 20 mg/ml.
  • Oral Solution: 5 mg/5 ml

STORAGE: Oxycodone should be stored between 15 C and 30 C (59 F and 86 F). Open bottles of oral solution should be destroyed after 90 days.

PRESCRIBED FOR: Oxycodone is prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain.

DOSING:

  • The usual starting dose using immediate release oxycodone tablets is 5 to 30 mg every 4 to 6 hours. Patients who have never received opioids should start with 5-15 mg every 4 to 6 hours. Some patients may require 30 mg or more every 4 hours.
  • The usual starting dose using extended release tablets is 10 mg every 12 hours. Extended release tablets are used when around the clock treatment is required for an extended period of time. Extended release tablets should not be broken, crushed or chewed but should be swallowed whole. Braking, crushing or chewing extended release tablets may lead to rapid absorption of the drug and dangerous levels of oxycodone.
  • The 60 and 80 tablets or single doses greater than 40 mg should only be used by patients who have been using opioids and have become tolerant to opioid therapy. Administration of large doses to opioid-naïve patients may lead to profound depression of breathing.
  • The usual adult dose of the oral concentrate (20 mg/ml) is 5 mg every 6 hours.
  • The usual adult dose for the oral solution (5 mg/5 ml) is 10-30 mg every 4 hours.

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Oxycodone, like other narcotic pain-relievers, increases the effects of drugs that slow brain function, such as alcohol, barbiturates, skeletal muscle relaxants, for example, carisoprodol (Soma), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), and benzodiazepines, for example, lorazepam (Ativan). Combined use of these drugs and oxycodone may lead to increased respiratory depression.

Oxycodone should not be taken with any of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) class of antidepressants, for example, isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), selegiline (Eldepryl), and procarbazine (Matulane) or other drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase, for example, linezolid (Zyvox). Such combinations may lead to confusion, high blood pressure, tremor, hyperactivity, coma, and death. Oxycodone should not be administered within 14 days of stopping an MAOI.

Since oxycodone causes constipation, the use of antidiarrheals, for example, diphenoxylate (Lomotil) and loperamide (Imodium), in persons taking oxycodone, can lead to severe constipation.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 7/31/2014



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