Making Sense of OTC Cold and Cough Medications

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Unsure about the hundreds of cold and flu preparations on the drugstore shelves? You're not alone. Deciding among the OTC (over-the-counter) remedies for cold, flu, or allergy symptoms can be intimidating, and a basic understanding of the types of drugs contained in these medications can help you make an informed choice.

Decongestants

Decongestants are the drugs of choice for a stuffy, congested nose. Decongestants act by narrowing the blood vessels in the nose, leading to decreased blood flow in the nasal tissues and reduced leakage of fluid from the nose. Decongestants can either be taken orally or applied locally (topically) in the form of nasal sprays or drops.

Pseudoephedrine (for example, loratadine and pseudoephedrine [Claritin-D], Sudafed, fexofenadine and pseudoephedrine [Allegra D]) and phenylephrine are decongestants that can be taken orally. Phenylephrine and oxymetolazone are examples of topical decongestants. While topical decongestants are effective after a few minutes, oral preparations (tablets) can take about 30 minutes to work. Decongestants act as stimulants that can increase heart rate, raise the blood pressure, exacerbate palpitations, and lead to feelings of nervousness or feeling "hyper."

OTC Cold and Cough Medications Resources

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