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- Optic neuritis facts
- What is optic neuritis?
- What causes optic neuritis?
- What are symptoms of optic neuritis?
- What are signs of optic neuritis?
- How is optic neuritis diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for optic neuritis?
- What is the prognosis for optic neuritis?
- Where can I find more information on optic neuritis?
What are symptoms of optic neuritis?
The major symptom of optic neuritis is vision loss, usually in one eye, often developing within hours to a couple of days and peaking in 1 to 2 weeks. It may vary from a small area of blurring to complete blindness. Affected individuals may also notice distorted vision, reduced color vision, loss of contrast, and washed-out or less vivid vision than normal. Symptoms may be worsened by heat or exercise. Vision loss is usually temporary, but it may be permanent in some cases.
Because optic neuritis usually affects one eye, patients may be unaware of subtle visual loss or changes in the color vision until they or doctors close or cover the healthy eye.
What are signs of optic neuritis?
The most characteristic findings on examination include reduced visual acuity (typically 20/25 to 20/190), a measurable change in peripheral vision, decreased perception of brightness in the affected eye, and loss of color vision out of proportion to the loss of visual acuity. A disturbance in reaction of the pupil (afferent pupillary defect or APD) is usually detectable if the other eye is either unaffected or involved to a lesser degree.
The optic nerve can easily be visualized with an ophthalmoscope. In one-third of the cases, there is visible swelling of the optic nerve, and there may be enlargement of the blood vessels around the nerve. This condition is called papillitis. In about two-thirds of patients, inflammation is entirely retrobulbar, causing no visible changes when the physician examines the optic nerve with an ophthalmoscope. This is called retrobulbar neuritis.