Norovirus Infection

  • Medical Author:
    Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

    Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.

  • Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

Quick GuideHealthy Living: 10 Health Myths Debunked

Healthy Living: 10 Health Myths Debunked

What causes a norovirus infection? How are norovirus infections transmitted?

Infection occurs when humans inadvertently ingest material contaminated with small amounts of fluids or feces from an infected person. It only takes a small number of viruses to cause infection, so even microscopic amounts of feces or fluids can be contagious.

An infected person with vomiting or diarrhea can contaminate their environment directly, or they may indirectly spread virus particles through aerosolized droplets when vomiting; however, the main route is by touching surfaces contaminated with the virus. Contamination may also occur in food and/or in water, which has led to infection spreading widely in restaurants or aboard cruise ships. Outbreaks in school systems occur regularly, sometimes spreading widely. The virus is very hardy and can live for days or weeks on surfaces, including clothing. Outbreaks often occur when groups of people congregate (for example, cruise ships, dormitories, schools, day-care centers). Continue Reading

Reviewed on 10/28/2015
References
REFERENCES:

Glass, R.I., U.D. Parashar, and M.K. Estes. "Norovirus Gastroenteritis." N Engl J Med 361 (2009): 1776-1785.

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "Updated Norovirus Outbreak Management and Disease Prevention Guidelines." MMWR Recomm Rep 60.RR-3 (2011): 1-20.

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Norovirus." Sept. 30, 2015. <http://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/>.

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Norovirus: NoroSTAT Data." May 29, 2015. <http://www.cdc.gov/norovirus/reporting/norostat/
data.html>.

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