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- Jaundice definition
- Jaundice in newborns (neonatal jaundice)
- What causes jaundice in newborns?
- Physiologic jaundice
- Maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility (Rh, ABO)
- Breast milk jaundice
- Breastfeeding jaundice
- Cephalohematoma (a collection of blood under the scalp)
- Red blood cell enzyme defects
- Red blood cell membrane defects
- What are the symptoms of jaundice in newborns?
- What are the risk factors for jaundice in newborns?
- How is jaundice in newborns diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for jaundice in newborns?
- What are the complications of jaundice in newborns?
- Can jaundice in newborns be prevented?
- What is the prognosis of jaundice in newborns?
Cephalohematoma (a collection of blood under the scalp)
Sometimes during the birthing process, the newborn may sustain a bruise or injury to the head, resulting in a blood collection/blood clot under the scalp. As this blood is naturally broken down, sudden elevated levels of bilirubin may overwhelm the processing capability of the newborn's immature liver, resulting in jaundice.
Red blood cell enzyme defects
Inherited genetic enzyme disorders, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency) or pyruvate kinase deficiency, for example, can lead to increased hemolysis and subsequent elevation in bilirubin levels.
Red blood cell membrane defects
Abnormalities in the membrane and shape of red blood cells (for example, spherocytosis) can lead to increased hemolysis.
Other causes of neonatal jaundice include prematurity, maternal diabetes, polycythemia, infection/sepsis, hypothyroidism, biliary atresia, cystic fibrosis, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Gilbert syndrome, hepatitis, thalassemia, and galactosemia.