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- Jaundice definition
- Jaundice in newborns (neonatal jaundice)
- What causes jaundice in newborns?
- Physiologic jaundice
- Maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility (Rh, ABO)
- Breast milk jaundice
- Breastfeeding jaundice
- Cephalohematoma (a collection of blood under the scalp)
- Red blood cell enzyme defects
- Red blood cell membrane defects
- What are the symptoms of jaundice in newborns?
- What are the risk factors for jaundice in newborns?
- How is jaundice in newborns diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for jaundice in newborns?
- What are the complications of jaundice in newborns?
- Can jaundice in newborns be prevented?
- What is the prognosis of jaundice in newborns?
This form of jaundice is usually evident on the second or third day of life. It is the most common cause of newborn jaundice and it is usually a transient and harmless condition. Physiologic jaundice is caused by the inability of the newborn's immature liver to metabolize (conjugate) and thus excrete bilirubin, which accumulates due to the breakdown of red blood cells which have a shorter life-span (70 to 90 days) than adult red blood cells (120 days). This increase in red blood cell breakdown and decreased ability to metabolize bilirubin overwhelms the newborns ability to properly process and excrete bilirubin. As the newborn's liver matures, however, the jaundice eventually disappears after 1 to 2 weeks.
Maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility (Rh, ABO)
This form of jaundice occurs when there is incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and the fetus. This leads to increased bilirubin levels from the breakdown of the fetus' red blood cells (hemolysis).
Breast milk jaundice
This form of jaundice occurs in breastfed newborns and often appears at the end of the first week of life. Certain chemicals in breast milk are thought to be responsible. It is usually a harmless condition that resolves spontaneously. Mothers typically do not have to discontinue breastfeeding.
This form of jaundice occurs when the breastfed newborn does NOT receive adequate breast milk intake. This may occur because of delayed or insufficient milk production by the mother or because of poor feeding by the newborn. This inadequate intake results in dehydration and fewer bowel movements for the newborn, which results in decreased bilirubin excretion from the body.