- Cancer 101: Cancer Explained
- Guide to Breast Cancer
- Skin Cancer Risks
- Patient Comments: Neuroblastoma - Signs and Symptoms
- Patient Comments: Neuroblastoma - Treatment
- Find a local Oncologist in your town
- Neuroblastoma facts*
- What is neuroblastoma?
- What are symptoms and signs of neuroblastoma?
- What tests are used in the detection and diagnosis of neuroblastoma?
- What is the prognosis for neuroblastoma?
- What are the stages of neuroblastoma?
- What is the treatment for neuroblastoma?
- What are treatment options for neuroblastoma?
Treatment of neuroblastoma is based on risk groups.
For many types of cancer, stages are used to plan treatment. For neuroblastoma, treatment depends on risk groups. The stage of neuroblastoma is one factor used to determine risk group. Other factors are the age of the child, tumor histology, and tumor biology.
There are 3 risk groups: low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk.
- Low-risk and intermediate-risk neuroblastoma have a good chance of being cured.
- High-risk neuroblastoma may be difficult to cure.
Progressive neuroblastoma is cancer that has progressed (continued to grow) during treatment. Recurrent neuroblastoma is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the same place or in other parts of the body.
Treatment option overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with neuroblastoma.
Different types of treatment are available for patients with neuroblastoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.
Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site 2. Choosing the most appropriate cancer treatment is a decision that ideally involves the patient, family, and health care team.
Children with neuroblastoma should always have their treatment planned by a team of doctors with expertise in treating childhood cancer.
Your child's treatment will be managed by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The pediatric oncologist may refer you to other pediatric doctors who have experience and expertise in treating children with neuroblastoma and who specialize in certain areas of medicine. These may include the following specialists:
- Medical oncologist.
- Pediatric surgeon.
- Radiation oncologist.
- Pediatric nurse specialist.
- Social worker.
- Rehabilitation specialist.
Children who are treated for neuroblastoma may be at higher risk for second cancers.
Some cancer treatments cause side effects that continue or appear years after cancer treatment has ended. These are called late effects. Late effects of cancer treatment include physical problems; changes in mood, feelings, actions, thinking, learning, or memory; and second cancers.
Some late effects may be treated or controlled. It is important that parents of children who are treated for neuroblastoma talk with their doctors about the possible late effects caused by some treatments.
Four types of standard treatment are used:
Surgery is usually used to treat neuroblastoma. Depending on where the tumor is and whether it has spread, as much of the tumor as possible will be removed. If the tumor cannot be removed, a biopsy may be done instead.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the spinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
The use of two or more anticancer drugs is called combination chemotherapy.
Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient's condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change.
New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials. These include the following:
Monoclonal antibody therapy
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a cancer treatment that uses antibodies made in the laboratory, from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to deliver drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells.
High-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy with stem cell transplant
High-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy with stem cell transplant is a way of giving high doses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy and replacing blood -forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the patient or a donor and are frozen and stored. After the chemotherapy and radiation therapy are completed, the stored stem cells are thawed and given back to the patient through an infusion, just like a blood transfusion. These reinfused stem cells migrate to the bone marrow and grow into (and restore) the body's bone marrow so it can again make blood cells.
Other drug therapy
13-cis retinoic acid is a vitamin -like drug that slows the cancer's ability to make more cancer cells and changes how these cells look and act.
This summary section refers to specific treatments under study in clinical trials, but it may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.