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- Neuroblastoma facts*
- What is neuroblastoma?
- What are symptoms and signs of neuroblastoma?
- What tests are used in the detection and diagnosis of neuroblastoma?
- What is the prognosis for neuroblastoma?
- What are the stages of neuroblastoma?
- What is the treatment for neuroblastoma?
- What are treatment options for neuroblastoma?
What is neuroblastoma?
Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord.
Neuroblastoma often begins in the nerve tissue of the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen. The adrenal glands produce important hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and the way the body reacts to stress. Neuroblastoma may also begin in the chest, in nerve tissue near the spine in the neck, or in the spinal cord.
Neuroblastoma most often begins during early childhood, usually in children younger than 5 years. It sometimes forms before birth but is usually found later, when the tumor begins to grow and cause symptoms. In rare cases, neuroblastoma may be found before birth by fetal ultrasound.
By the time neuroblastoma is diagnosed, the cancer has usually metastasized (spread), most often to the lymph nodes, bones, bone marrow, liver, and skin.
Possible signs of neuroblastoma include bone pain and a lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest.
The most common symptoms of neuroblastoma are caused by the tumor pressing on nearby tissues as it grows or by cancer spreading to the bone. These and other symptoms may be caused by neuroblastoma. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:
- Lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest.
- Bulging eyes.
- Dark circles around the eyes ("black eyes").
- Pains in the bones.
- Swollen stomach and trouble breathing in infants.
- Painless, bluish lumps under the skin in infants.
- Weakness or paralysis (loss of ability to move a body part).
Less common signs of neuroblastoma include the following: