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- NDM-1 facts
- What is NDM-1?
- What causes NDM-1 to be produced in bacteria?
- What are symptoms and signs of a person infected with bacteria carrying NDM-1?
- How are bacteria that produce NDM-1 identified?
- What is the treatment for an infection caused by bacteria that make NDM-1?
- What is the prognosis for a person infected with NDM-1 producing bacteria?
- Can infections with bacteria containing NDM-1 be prevented?
- Where can people find more information about NDM-1 producing bacteria?
What causes NDM-1 to be produced in bacteria?
The gene that encodes for NDM-1 is called blaNDM-1 and has been identified on bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. Plasmids are small segments of genetic material that are easily transferred among bacteria. In this way, the ability to produce NDM-1 can pass from one bacterial strain to another and even from one bacterial genus to another.
Cases of NDM-1 infection are usually caused by gram negative bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family. This family includes common bacteria like Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella. These bacteria reside in the bowel and may spread from person to person if hands or items are contaminated with fecal material. To date, strains of Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter genera of bacteria are known to possess the gene for NDM-1.
What are symptoms and signs of a person infected with bacteria carrying NDM-1?
Bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family are the most common cause of urinary infections. They can also cause bloodstream infections (sepsis), pneumonia, or wound infections. Symptoms and signs reflect the site of the infection. Most patients will have fever and fatigue. If bacteria enter the bloodstream, patients may go into shock. Symptoms do not differ between bacteria that express NDM-1 and those that do not. However, patients who have bacteria producing NDM-1 will not respond to most conventional antibiotics and are at high risk for complications.