Nasopharyngeal Cancer (cont.)

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer (whether it affects part of the nasopharynx, involves the whole nasopharynx, or has spread to other places in the body).
  • The type of nasopharyngeal cancer.
  • The size of the tumor.
  • The patient's age and general health.

After nasopharyngeal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the nasopharynx or to other parts of the body.

The process used to find out whether cancer has spread within the nasopharynx or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnose nasopharyngeal cancer are often also used to stage the disease.

The following stages are used for nasopharyngeal cancer:

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)

In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the lining of the nasopharynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

Stage I

In stage I, cancer has formed and is found in the nasopharynx only.

Stage II

Stage II nasopharyngeal cancer is divided into stage IIA and stage IIB as follows:

  • Stage IIA: Cancer has spread from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat that includes the soft palate, the base of the tongue, and the tonsils), and/or to the nasal cavity.
  • Stage IIB: Cancer is found in the nasopharynx and has spread to lymph nodes on one side of the neck, or has spread to the area surrounding the nasopharynx and may have spread to lymph nodes on one side of the neck. The involved lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller.

Stage III

In stage III nasopharyngeal cancer, the cancer:

  • is found in the nasopharynx and has spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck and the lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller; or
  • has spread into the soft tissues (oropharynx and/or nasal cavity) and to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck and the lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller; or
  • has spread beyond the soft tissues into areas around the pharynx and to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck and the lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller; or
  • has spread to nearby bones or sinuses and may have spread to lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck and the involved lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller.

Stage IV

Stage IV nasopharyngeal cancer is divided into stage IVA, stage IVB, and stage IVC as follows:

  • Stage IVA: Cancer has spread beyond the nasopharynx and may have spread to the cranial nerves, the hypopharynx (bottom part of the throat), areas in and around the side of the skull or jawbone, and/or the bone around the eye. Cancer may also have spread to lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck, and the involved lymph nodes are 6 centimeters or smaller.
  • Stage IVB: Cancer has spread to lymph nodes above the collarbone and/or the involved lymph nodes are larger than 6 centimeters.
  • Stage IVC: Cancer has spread beyond nearby lymph nodes to other parts of the body.

Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the nasopharynx or in other parts of the body.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/2/2014

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