Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Symptoms & Signs
Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Multiple sclerosis symptoms vary widely, and a description of "typical" symptoms is difficult. All the symptoms involve changes in neurologic functioning, but there are striking differences among patients in the type, severity, and frequency of these symptoms. Different disease patterns such as relapsing-remitting (RR), primary-progressive (PP), secondary-progressive (SP), and progressive-relapsing (PR) classify the condition according to the development and progression of symptoms over time. Relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis is the most common type, in which symptoms (exacerbations of the condition) are followed by periods of time with reduced or no symptoms. These relatively symptom-free periods, known as remissions, can last for days or for many years.
Some cases of multiple sclerosis are so mild that the condition is difficult to diagnose. In other cases, there is a gradual decline in functioning through the years, and early signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis may be difficult to appreciate. In very rare cases, symptoms can be so severe and rapidly progressing as to be fatal within a short time (known as malignant or fulminant MS). Symptoms can be related to one body part or may involve multiple areas of the body. They may be of short duration or may persist for a long time. Some symptoms of multiple sclerosis are mild and cause inconvenience; others may be severe and debilitating.
Visual disturbances can be the first early symptom of MS in some people. The vision changes can include blurred vision, distortions, or loss of vision in one eye. The vision symptoms can be accompanied by eye pain. Other symptoms can include tingling, numbness, prickling pain, or muscle spasms in the arms and legs that may occur at one or multiple sites. Weakness in the arm and leg muscles may occur, and this can sometimes affect balance and posture, causing clumsiness or lack of coordination. Other symptoms include fatigue, dizziness, difficulties with speech, tremors, heat intolerance, and loss of sensation. Sexual dysfunction and loss of bladder or bowel control can develop in more serious cases.
Mental changes can also occur as symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Memory loss, decreased ability to concentrate, attention deficits, an inability to perform sequential tasks, and changes in judgment have all been reported. Depression, mania, paranoia, and uncontrollable urges to laugh or weep are other symptoms that have been described.
Multiple sclerosis causes
MS is caused by an autoimmune reaction that destroys the myelin sheath (protective covering) of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The exact reason that the autoimmune reaction occurs is not understood, but both genetic and environmental factors are believed to play a role.
Summary of Common MS Symptoms by MedicineNet Staff
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 10/19/2015
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