MRI Scan Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical tests and procedures are used to diagnose and treat a wide variety of conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of MRI Scan that may be used to diagnose or monitor the status of the diseases and conditions listed below.

  • Kidney Pain Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, and less common conditions may...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kidney Pain Article
    • What are the kidneys?
    • Where are the kidneys located?
    • What is the function of the kidneys?
    • What are the symptoms of kidney pain?
    • What are some of the kidney conditions and diseases that cause kidney pain?
    • When should I see my doctor about kidney pain?
    • What are common tests are available to diagnose kidney diseases?
    • How is kidney pain treated?
  • Vertigo Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or rocking, even when someone is at rest. Vertigo may be caused by a problem in the brain or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vertigo Article
    • What is vertigo?
    • What causes vertigo?
    • What are the risk factors for vertigo?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of vertigo?
    • How is vertigo diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for vertigo?
    • Are home remedies effective for treating vertigo?
    • Can vertigo be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for vertigo?
  • Sciatica Sciatica pain, caused by irritation of the sciatic nerve, typically radiates from the low back to behind the thigh to below the...learn more »
  • Lower Back Pain There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae,...learn more »
  • Liver Disease Liver disease can be cause by a variety of things including infection (hepatitis), diseases such as gallstones, high cholesterol...learn more »
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as...learn more »
    In This Article
    Rheumatoid Arthritis Article
    • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) facts
    • What is rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?
    • What are causes and risk factors of rheumatoid arthritis?
    • What are rheumatoid arthritis symptoms and signs?
    • What are complications of rheumatoid disease?
    • How do physicians diagnose rheumatoid arthritis?
    • What is the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis?
    • "First-line" rheumatoid arthritis medications
    • "Second-line" or "slow-acting" rheumatoid arthritis drugs (disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or DMARDs)
    • What are newer treatments for rheumatoid arthritis?
    • Rheumatoid arthritis diet and other treatments
    • What about rheumatoid arthritis and pregnancy?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis?
    • Is it possible to prevent rheumatoid arthritis?
    • What research is being done on rheumatoid arthritis?
    • Where can people get additional information on rheumatoid arthritis?
  • Lung Cancer Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung...learn more »
  • Torn Meniscus A torn meniscus (knee cartilage) may be caused by suddenly stopping, sharply twisting, or deep squatting or kneeling when lifting...learn more »
  • Diverticulitis (Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease) Diverticulitis is a condition in which diverticuli in the colon rupture. The rupture results in infection in the tissues that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diverticulitis (Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease) Article
    • Diverticulosis and diverticulitis facts
    • What is diverticulosis?
    • What is diverticulitis?
    • What are diverticulitis symptoms?
    • What causes diverticula and how do diverticula form?
    • What are the more serious complications of diverticulitis?
    • How are the diagnosis of diverticulitis and diverticulosis made?
    • What is the treatment for diverticulitis and diverticulosis?
    • Medical treatment of diverticulitis and diverticulosis
    • Surgical treatment for diverticulitis
    • What can be done to prevent diverticulitis and diverticulosis?
  • Pinched Nerve A pinched nerve causes pain, numbness, or tingling in the affected area due to pressure on a nerve. Caral tunnel and sciatica are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pinched Nerve Article
    • What is a pinched nerve?
    • What are the risk factors for a pinched nerve?
    • What causes a pinched nerve?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a pinched nerve?
    • How is a pinched nerve diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a pinched nerve?
    • What is the prognosis for a pinched nerve?
    • Can a pinched nerve be prevented?
  • Uterine Cancer Though uterine cancer's cause is unknown, there are many factors that will put a woman at risk, including: over age 50,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Uterine Cancer Article
    • Uterine cancer facts
    • What is the uterus?
    • What is uterine cancer (endometrial cancer)?
    • What causes uterine cancer? Who is at risk for uterine cancer?
    • What are uterine cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is a diagnosis of uterine cancer determined?
    • How is the stage determined for uterine cancer?
    • What are treatment options for uterine cancer?
    • What about surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer?
    • What about radiation therapy for the treatment of uterine cancer?
    • What about chemotherapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer?
    • What about hormone therapy for the treatment of uterine cancer?
    • How does a person go about getting a second opinion after a uterine cancer diagnosis?
    • What sort of follow-up treatment is needed during and after uterine cancer treatment?
    • What support is available for patients with uterine cancer?
    • What research is being done on uterine cancer?
  • Gallstones Gallstones are stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones (formed in the gallbladder) can be as small as a...learn more »
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer has been called a "silent" disease because early...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pancreatic Cancer Article
    • Pancreatic cancer facts
    • What is the pancreas, and what is the function of the pancreas?
    • What is cancer?
    • What is pancreatic cancer?
    • What are pancreatic cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of pancreatic cancer?
    • How is the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer made?
    • How is pancreatic cancer staged?
    • What is the treatment for resectable pancreatic cancer?
    • What is the treatment for locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer?
    • What is the treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer?
    • What are the side effects of pancreatic cancer treatment?
    • What is the prognosis of pancreatic cancer?
    • What research is being done on pancreatic cancer?
    • Is complimentary or alternative medicine effective in pancreatic cancer treatment?
    • Can pancreatic cancer be prevented?
    • Where can people get support when coping with pancreatic cancer?
    • Where can people find additional information about pancreatic cancer?
  • Ovarian Cysts Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled, sac-like structures within an ovary. Causes of ovarian cysts are numerous. Symptoms of an ovarian...learn more »
    In This Article
    Ovarian Cysts Article
    • Ovarian cysts facts
    • What is the ovary and what are ovarian cysts?
    • What causes ovarian cysts?
    • What symptoms are caused by ovarian cysts?
    • How are ovarian cysts diagnosed?
    • How can the physician decide if an ovarian cyst is dangerous?
    • How are ovarian cysts treated?
    • What are the risks of ovarian cysts during pregnancy?
  • Uterine Fibroids (Benign Tumors of the Uterus) Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that originate in the uterus and are usually round or semi-round in shape. The most common...learn more »
    In This Article
    Uterine Fibroids (Benign Tumors of the Uterus) Article
    • Uterine fibroids facts
    • What are uterine fibroids?
    • What causes uterine fibroids and how common are they?
    • What are the symptoms of uterine fibroids?
    • Do untreated uterine fibroids pose a risk?
    • What are the usual ways of diagnosing uterine fibroids?
    • What is the treatment for uterine fibroids?
    • Surgery for fibroids
    • Medical treatment for fibroids
    • What are the risks of uterine fibroids during pregnancy?
  • Abdominal Pain (Causes, Remedies, Treatment) Abdominal pain can have many causes. Some of the less serious causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abdominal Pain (Causes, Remedies, Treatment) Article
    • Abdominal pain facts
    • What is abdominal pain?
    • What causes abdominal pain?
    • When should I call my doctor about abdominal pain?
    • How is the cause of abdominal pain diagnosed?
    • Signs and symptoms associated with abdominal pain
    • Physical examination to diagnose abdominal pain
    • Exams and tests to diagnose abdominal pain
    • IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) and diagnosing abdominal pain
    • Why can diagnosis of the cause of abdominal pain be difficult?
    • What are home remedies for certain causes of abdominal pain?
    • What medications can be used to treat certain causes of abdominal pain?
    • What lifestyle choices can I make to prevent abdominal pain?
  • Pulmonary Embolism (Blood Clot in the Lung) A pulmonary embolism occurs when a piece of a blood clot from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) breaks off and travels to an artery in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pulmonary Embolism (Blood Clot in the Lung) Article
    • Pulmonary embolism facts
    • What is a pulmonary embolism?
    • What are the causes and risk factors for pulmonary embolism?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism?
    • How is pulmonary embolism diagnosed?
    • Basic testing (CBC, electrolytes, BUN, creatinine blood test, chest X-ray, EKG)
    • Pulmonary angiogram
    • d-Dimer blood test
    • CT scan
    • Ventilation-perfusion scans
    • Venous Doppler study
    • Echocardiography (EKG, ECG)
    • What is the treatment for pulmonary embolism?
    • Anticoagulation
    • Thrombolytic therapy
    • What is the prognosis for pulmonary embolism?
    • Can pulmonary embolism be prevented?
  • Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction (SI Joint Pain) Sacroiliac joint (SI) dysfunction is a general term to reflect pain in the SI joints. Causes of SI joint pain include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction (SI Joint Pain) Article
    • What are the sacroiliac (SI) joints?
    • What is sacroiliac joint dysfunction?
    • What are the causes of sacroiliac joint dysfunction?
    • What are sacroiliac joint dysfunction symptoms?
    • How is sacroiliac joint dysfunction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for sacroiliac joint dysfunction?
    • How can sacroiliac joint dysfunction be prevented?
  • Knee Pain Acute injuries, medical conditions, and chronic use conditions are causes of knee pain. Symptoms and signs that accompany knee...learn more »
    In This Article
    Knee Pain Article
    • Knee pain facts
    • What is knee pain?
    • What are knee pain symptoms and signs?
    • What causes knee pain?
    • What are risk factors for knee pain?
    • When should people with knee pain call a health-care professional?
    • What are some of the complications of knee pain?
    • How do physicians diagnose knee pain?
    • What is the treatment for knee pain?
    • Are there any home remedies for relief of knee pain?
    • What is the prognosis of knee pain?
  • Coccydynia (Tailbone Pain) Coccydynia is an inflammation of the bony area (tailbone or coccyx) located between the buttocks. Coccydynia is associated with...learn more »
    In This Article
    Coccydynia (Tailbone Pain) Article
    • Coccydynia facts
    • What is coccydynia?
    • What causes coccydynia?
    • What are risk factors for coccydynia?
    • What are coccydynia symptoms and signs?
    • How is coccydynia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for coccydynia?
    • What is the prognosis for coccydynia?
    • Is it possible to prevent coccydynia?
  • Dizziness Dizziness is a symptom that is often applies to a variety of sensations including lightheadedness and vertigo. Causes of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dizziness Article
    • Dizziness facts
    • Introduction to dizziness (feeling dizzy)
    • What are some common causes of dizziness?
    • Low blood pressure
    • Postural or orthostatic hypotension
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • Endocrine diseases
    • Hyperventilation
    • Heart conditions
    • Vasovagal syncope
    • Dizziness and vertigo
    • What are the symptoms experienced when a person feels dizzy?
    • When should I call the doctor for dizziness?
    • How is dizziness diagnosed?
    • How is vertigo diagnosed?
    • How is dizziness treated?
  • Brain Tumor A brain tumor can be either benign (non cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), primary, or secondary. Causes and risk factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Tumor Article
    • Brain tumor facts*
    • What is the brain?
    • What are the tumor grades and types?
    • Tumor grade
    • Types of primary brain tumors
    • What are the risk factors for brain tumors?
    • What are the symptoms of a brain tumor?
    • How are brain tumors diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a brain tumor?
    • What type of surgery is available for brain tumors?
    • Radiation therapy for brain tumors
    • Chemotherapy for brain tumors
    • What about a second opinion for brain tumor treatment?
    • Nutrition during brain tumor treatment
    • What supportive care is available for patients and caregivers?
    • What about rehabilitation after brain tumor treatment?
    • What about follow-up care after brain tumor treatment?
    • Sources of support
    • Taking part in cancer research
  • Intestinal Gas (Belching, Bloating, Flatulence) Gas or "intestinal gas" means different things to different people. Everyone has gas and eliminates it by belching or farting...learn more »
    In This Article
    Intestinal Gas (Belching, Bloating, Flatulence) Article
    • Intestinal gas facts
    • What causes belching?
    • What causes bloating?
    • What causes flatulence (gas)?
    • What are the causes of intermittent abdominal bloating/distention?
    • How are belching, bloating/distention, and flatulence evaluated?
    • How is excessive intestinal gas treated?
  • Foot Pain Foot pain may be caused by injuries (sprains, strains, bruises, and fractures), diseases (diabetes, Hansen disease, and gout),...learn more »
    In This Article
    Foot Pain Article
    • How is the foot designed?
    • What causes foot pain?
    • What other symptoms and signs may accompany foot pain?
    • When should I seek medical treatment for foot pain?
    • How is foot pain diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for foot pain?
    • What follow-up care is needed after foot pain is treated?
    • How can foot pain be prevented?
    • Foot Pain At A Glance
  • Thyroid Cancer There are four major types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Tumors on the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thyroid Cancer Article
    • Thyroid cancer facts*
    • What is the thyroid?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the different types of thyroid cancer?
    • Thyroid cancer symptoms*
    • How is thyroid cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging determined for thyroid cancer?
    • What is the treatment for thyroid cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Thyroid hormone treatment
    • Radioactive iodine therapy
    • External radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Second opinion
    • Follow-up care
    • Sources of support
    • Taking part in cancer research
  • Scoliosis Scoliosis causes an abnormal curvature of the spine. When the cause of scoliosis is unknown the disorder is described based on...learn more »
    In This Article
    Scoliosis Article
    • Scoliosis facts
    • What is scoliosis?
    • What causes scoliosis?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of scoliosis?
    • How is scoliosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for scoliosis?
    • What is the prognosis for scoliosis?
    • Is there a cure for scoliosis?
    • Where can people get more information on scoliosis?
  • Chronic Rhinitis and Post-Nasal Drip Allergic rhinitis symptoms include an itchy, runny nose, sneezing, itchy ears, eyes, and throat. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (also...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chronic Rhinitis and Post-Nasal Drip Article
    • Chronic rhinitis and post-nasal drip facts
    • What is the purpose of the nose?
    • What are rhinitis and post-nasal drip?
    • What causes rhinitis?
    • Is rhinitis always related to allergies?
    • What conditions cause an abnormal production of nasal secretions?
    • What conditions cause an impaired clearance of nasal secretions?
    • How can chronic rhinitis and post-nasal drip be treated?
    • What medications can be used to treat rhinitis and post-nasal drip?
    • What can be used to treat non-allergic rhinitis?
    • Does salt water have any role in the treatment of rhinitis and post-nasal drip?
    • What are other options for the treatment of rhinitis and post-nasal drip?
    • Terminology
  • Fainting (Syncope) Fainting, also referred to as blacking out, syncope, or temporary loss of consciousness has many causes. Often a person will have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fainting (Syncope) Article
    • Fainting (syncope) facts
    • Introduction to fainting (syncope)
    • What causes fainting (syncope)?
    • Heart rhythm changes
    • Heart structural conditions
    • Heart valve conditions
    • Sudden cardiac death
    • Postural hypotension
    • Vasovagal syncope
    • Anemia
    • Dehydration
    • Orthostatic hypotension
    • Vertebrobasilar artery disease
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Other medications and drugs
    • Pregnancy
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fainting (syncope)?
    • How is fainting (syncope) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fainting (syncope)?
    • Can fainting (syncope) be prevented?
  • Hematoma A hematoma is a collection of blood that is outside a blood vessel. There are different areas where hematomas occur including the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hematoma Article
    • Hematoma facts
    • What is a hematoma?
    • What causes a hematoma?
    • What are the types of hematomas?
    • What are the symptoms of a hematoma?
    • When should I call the doctor about a hematoma?
    • How is a hematoma diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a hematoma?
    • What are the complications of a hematoma?
    • Can hematomas be prevented?
  • Neck Pain (Cervical Pain) Neck pain (cervical pain) may be caused by any number of disorders and diseases. Tenderness is another symptom of neck pain....learn more »
    In This Article
    Neck Pain (Cervical Pain) Article
    • What is neck pain? What are causes and risk factors for neck pain?
    • What are other symptoms that are associated with neck pain?
    • What are the structures of the neck?
    • How is neck pain diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for neck pain? What are home remedies for neck pain?
    • What is the prognosis for neck pain?
    • Is it possible to prevent neck pain?
  • Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome (TMJ) Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome is a disorder that causes symptoms like pain, clicking, and popping of the jaw. TMJ is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome (TMJ) Article
    • What is temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome?
    • What are the risk factors for TMJ syndrome?
    • What causes TMJ syndrome?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of TMJ syndrome?
    • How is TMJ syndrome diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for TMJ syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis for TMJ syndrome?
    • Can TMJ syndrome be prevented?
  • Encephalopathy Encephalopathy means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. Causes of encephalopathy are varied and numerous. The main symptom of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Encephalopathy Article
    • Encephalopathy facts
    • Encephalopathy definition and overview
    • What causes encephalopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of encephalopathy?
    • How is encephalopathy diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for encephalopathy?
    • What are the complications of encephalopathy?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for encephalopathy?
    • Can encephalopathy be prevented?
    • For more information on types of encephalopathy
  • Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the esophagus. Risk factors of cancer of the esophagus include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Esophageal Cancer Article
    • Esophageal cancer facts*
    • What is the esophagus?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the types of esophageal cancer?
    • What are esophageal cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are esophageal cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is esophageal cancer diagnosed?
    • What are the stages of esophageal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for esophageal cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Should people get a second opinion after an esophageal cancer diagnosis?
    • What are the side effects of treatment for cancer of the esophagus?
    • What follow-up care is necessary during recovery?
    • Where can people get support for esophageal cancer?
    • How can people with esophageal cancer participate in clinical trials?
    • Where can people find more information about esophageal cancer?
  • Kidney Cancer There are several types of kidney cancer, including renal cell cancer (renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma), transitional cell...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kidney Cancer Article
    • Kidney cancer facts*
    • What are the kidneys?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are kidney cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are kidney cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is kidney cancer diagnosed?
    • How is kidney cancer staging determined?
    • Methods of kidney cancer treatment
    • What are the side effects of treatment for kidney cancer?
    • What happens after treatment for kidney cancer?
    • What does the future hold in the field of kidney cancer?
    • What resources are there for patients with kidney cancer?
  • Cyst Cysts are sac-like structures that may be filled with gas, liquid, or solid materials. Cysts may produce symptoms depending on...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cyst Article
    • Cyst facts
    • What is a cyst?
    • What causes a cyst?
    • What are the different types of cysts?
    • What are risk factors for a cyst?
    • What are cyst symptoms and signs?
    • How do physicians diagnose a cyst?
    • What is the treatment for a cyst?
    • What is the prognosis of a cyst?
    • Is it possible to prevent a cyst?
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a ballooning or widening of the main artery (the aorta) as it courses down through the abdomen. Most...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Article
    • Abdominal aortic aneurysm facts
    • What is an aneurysm?
    • What is an aortic aneurysm?
    • What is the thoracic and abdominal aorta?
    • Where do aortic aneurysms tend to develop?
    • What shape are most aortic aneurysms?
    • What is inside an aortic aneurysm?
    • Who is most likely to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What are risk factors for aortic aneurysms?
    • What is the most common cause of aortic aneurysms?
    • What are other causes of aortic aneurysms?
    • What are the symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • How is an abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed clinically?
    • What tests help in the diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What is the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms?
    • What are the complications with an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • How are abdominal aortic aneurysms repaired?
    • What is done if an abdominal aortic aneurysm threatens to rupture?
    • What is the medical management (nonsurgical management) of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
  • Shin Splints Shin splints result from inflammation from injury to the tendon and adjacent tissues in the front of the outer leg. Shin splints...learn more »
    In This Article
    Shin Splints Article
    • Shin splints facts
    • What are shin splints?
    • What are risk factors for shin splints?
    • What are shin splints symptoms?
    • What causes shin splints?
    • How are shin splints diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for shin splints?
    • What is the multifaceted relative rest approach?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for shin splints?
    • Can shin splints be prevented?
  • Bone Spurs Bone spurs are pointy outgrowths of bone that develop in areas of inflammation or injury. They commonly occur on the heel and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bone Spurs Article
    • Bone spur facts
    • What is a bone spur?
    • What causes bone spurs?
    • Where do bone spurs occur?
    • What are symptoms of bone spurs?
    • How are bone spurs diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bone spurs?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for bone spurs?
    • Can bone spurs be prevented?
  • Hemochromatosis (Iron Overload) Hereditary hemochromatosis (iron overload) is an inherited disorder in which there is excessive accumulation of iron in the body....learn more »
  • Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of the lymphatic system, a vital part of the body's immune system. Symptoms include swollen...learn more »
    In This Article
    Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Article
    • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma facts
    • What is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What causes non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What are risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What are symptoms and signs of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • How is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed?
    • What are the types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and how is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What is the prognosis and survival rate for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • Where can people find more information about non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
  • Baker Cyst A Baker cyst, also called a popliteal cyst, is swelling caused by knee joint fluid protruding to the back of the knee (popliteal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Baker Cyst Article
    • Baker cyst facts
    • What is a Baker cyst?
    • What causes a Baker cyst?
    • What are symptoms and signs of a Baker cyst?
    • How is a Baker cyst diagnosed?
    • How is a Baker cyst treated?
    • What is the prognosis for a Baker cyst?
    • Is it possible to prevent a Baker cyst?
  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Thoracic outlet syndrome is a condition where symptoms are produced from compression of nerves or blood vessels because the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Article
    • Thoracic outlet syndrome facts
    • What is thoracic outlet syndrome?
    • What causes thoracic outlet syndrome?
    • What are risk factors for thoracic outlet syndrome?
    • What are symptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome?
    • How do physicians diagnose thoracic outlet syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for thoracic outlet syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis for thoracic outlet syndrome?
    • Is it possible to prevent thoracic outlet syndrome?
  • Brain Cancer Cancers that form from brain tissue are called primary brain tumors. Brain tumors may be malignant (brain cancer) or benign....learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Cancer Article
    • Brain cancer facts
    • What is brain cancer?
    • What is metastatic brain cancer?
    • What causes brain cancer?
    • Do cell phones cause brain cancer?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of brain cancer?
    • What tests are used to diagnose brain cancer?
    • What is the treatment for brain cancer?
    • What are the side effects of brain cancer treatment?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) of treated brain cancer?
    • What can I do to help my family (and me) cope with my diagnosis of brain cancer?
    • How is brain cancer prevented?
    • Where can I get more information about my type of brain cancer?
  • Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain. The fluid is often under...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hydrocephalus Article
    • Hydrocephalus facts
    • What is hydrocephalus?
    • What are the different types of hydrocephalus?
    • Who gets this hydrocephalus?
    • What causes hydrocephalus?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of hydrocephalus?
    • How is hydrocephalus diagnosed?
    • What is the current treatment for hydrocephalus?
    • What are the possible complications of a shunt system?
    • What is the prognosis for hydrocephalus?
    • What research is being done on hydrocephalus?
    • Where can I get more information about hydrocephalus?
  • Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. Potential causes include injections around the bone, fractures that puncture the skin,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteomyelitis Article
    • Osteomyelitis facts
    • What is osteomyelitis?
    • What causes osteomyelitis?
    • What are osteomyelitis symptoms and signs?
    • How is osteomyelitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for osteomyelitis?
    • What is the prognosis for osteomyelitis?
  • Dislocated Shoulder The shoulder is the most often dislocated joint in the body due to its mobility. Dislocation occurs when the head of the humerus...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dislocated Shoulder Article
    • Shoulder dislocation facts
    • What is dislocation of the shoulder? What causes a shoulder dislocation?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of a dislocated shoulder?
    • How do physicians diagnose dislocated shoulders?
    • What is the treatment for a dislocated shoulder?
    • What happens after reduction of a shoulder dislocation?
    • What is appropriate follow-up following a shoulder dislocation?
    • What are potential complications of a shoulder dislocation?
  • Torn ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear) The anterior cruciate ligament helps to prevent the top and bottom of the knee from sliding back and forth. Symptoms and signs of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Torn ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear) Article
    • Torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) facts
    • What is the function of the knee joint?
    • What is a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)?
    • What causes a torn ACL?
    • What are symptoms and signs of a torn ACL?
    • How is a torn ACL diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a torn ACL?
    • How long does it take to recover from a torn ACL?
    • What is the prognosis of a torn ACL?
    • Can ACL tears be prevented?
  • Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that develops in plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies. Symptoms include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Multiple Myeloma Article
    • What is multiple myeloma?
    • What causes multiple myeloma?
    • What are risk factors for multiple myeloma?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma?
    • How is multiple myeloma diagnosed?
    • What are the stages of multiple myeloma?
    • What is the treatment for multiple myeloma?
    • What is the prognosis for multiple myeloma?
    • What support systems are available for multiple myeloma?
  • Cushing's Syndrome Cushing's syndrome, sometimes referred to as hypercortisolism, is a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure to high levels...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cushing's Syndrome Article
    • Cushing's syndrome facts*
    • What is Cushing's syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?
    • What causes Cushing's syndrome?
    • How is Cushing's syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is Cushing's syndrome treated?
    • What research is being done on Cushing's syndrome?
    • For more information
  • Hamstring Injury Hamstring injuries may range from minor strains to major ruptures. A hamstring injury causes spasm, tightness, and tenderness....learn more »
    In This Article
    Hamstring Injury Article
    • What are the hamstrings?
    • What is the function of the hamstrings?
    • What causes hamstring injuries, and what are types of hamstring injuries?
    • What are symptoms and signs of injury to the hamstring muscles?
    • How are hamstring injuries diagnosed?
    • How are hamstring injuries treated?
    • Can hamstring injuries be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for hamstring injuries?
    • Where can one find more information about hamstring injuries?
    • Hamstring injury facts
  • Bone Cancer Bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs in cells that make up the bones. Primary bone cancer that arises in bone cells...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bone Cancer Article
    • What is bone cancer? What is metastatic bone cancer?
    • Who is at risk for bone cancer?
    • What causes bone cancer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of bone cancer?
    • What are the different types of bone cancer?
    • What kinds of bone cancer occur in children?
    • What tests are used to diagnose bone cancer?
    • What is the treatment for bone cancer?
    • How is bone cancer pain managed?
    • What is the prognosis for bone cancer?
    • Can bone cancer be prevented?
  • Brain Hemorrhage A brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke caused when an artery bursts in the brain, causing localized bleeding in the surrounding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Hemorrhage Article
    • What is a brain hemorrhage?
    • What causes a brain hemorrhage?
    • What are the symptoms of a brain hemorrhage?
    • How is a brain hemorrhage diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a brain hemorrhage?
    • What is the prognosis after a brain hemorrhage? Is recovery possible?
    • Special situations
  • Bladder Cancer Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bladder Cancer Article
    • Bladder Cancer Facts
    • What is the bladder?
    • What are the layers of the bladder?
    • What is bladder cancer?
    • What is the burden of bladder cancer in the U.S.?
    • What are the types of bladder cancer?
    • What are bladder cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are bladder cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is bladder cancer diagnosed?
    • How is bladder cancer staging determined?
    • What is bladder cancer grading?
    • What is transurethral surgery or "TURBT" for bladder cancer?
    • What is the treatment for superficial bladder cancer?
    • What is surveillance for bladder cancer?
    • What is the treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer?
    • What is chemotherapy for bladder cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for bladder cancer?
    • Can bladder cancer be prevented?
    • Where can people find more information on bladder cancer?
    • What research is being done on bladder cancer?
  • Anal Cancer Anal cancer, cancer located at the end of the large intestine, has symptoms that include anal or rectal bleeding, anal pain or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anal Cancer Article
    • Anal cancer facts*
    • What is anal cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of anal cancer?
    • How is anal cancer diagnosed?
    • What affects the prognosis?
    • How is the staging of anal cancer determined?
    • What is recurrent anal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for anal cancer?
    • How does staging affect the treatment of anal cancer?
    • What are the treatment options for recurrent anal cancer?
    • Where can I find more information about anal cancer?
  • Elbow Pain Elbow pain is most often the result of tendinitis, which can affect the inner or outer elbow. Treatment includes ice, rest, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Elbow Pain Article
    • Elbow pain facts
    • How is the elbow designed, and what is its function?
    • What injuries can cause elbow pain, and what are symptoms and signs of the causes of elbow pain?
    • What are diseases and conditions that can cause elbow pain, and how are they treated?
    • How is elbow pain diagnosed?
    • What are treatments for elbow pain?
    • What is the prognosis of elbow pain?
    • Can elbow pain be prevented?
  • Radiculopathy Radiculopathy, a condition in which a nerve or nerves along the spine are compressed causing pain, numbness, weakenss, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Radiculopathy Article
    • Radiculopathy facts
    • What is radiculopathy?
    • What are the risk factors for radiculopathy?
    • What are the causes of radiculopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of radiculopathy?
    • How is radiculopathy diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for radiculopathy?
    • Can radiculopathy be prevented?
    • What is the outlook for radiculopathy?
  • Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly) An enlarged spleen or splenomegaly is generally caused by other diseases or conditions such as infections, cancers, blood...learn more »
    In This Article
    Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly) Article
    • What is the spleen, and what is its function?
    • What does the spleen look like, and where is it located in the body?
    • What are the causes of an enlarged spleen?
    • What type of pain, and where is the pain located with an enlarged spleen?
    • What are other signs and symptoms of an enlarged spleen?
    • How is the diagnosis of an enlarged spleen made?
    • What is the treatment for an enlarged spleen?
    • What complications are associated with an enlarged spleen?
    • Can an enlarged spleen be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for someone with an enlarged spleen?
  • Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach) Dyspepsia (indigestion) is a functional disease in which the gastrointestinal organs, primarily the stomach and first part of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Indigestion (Dyspepsia, Upset Stomach) Article
    • Dyspepsia (indigestion) facts
    • What is dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What are the symptoms of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What causes dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What is the course of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What are the complications of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • How is dyspepsia diagnosed (indigestion)?
    • Exclusion of other diseases
    • Specific tests of gastrointestinal function
    • How is dyspepsia (indigestion) treated and relieved?
    • What is a reasonable approach to the diagnosis and treatment of dyspepsia (indigestion)?
    • What is in the future for dyspepsia (indigestion)?
  • Chronic Pain Chronic pain is pain (an unpleasant sense of discomfort) that persists or progresses over a long period of time. In contrast to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chronic Pain Article
    • Chronic pain facts*
    • Introduction to chronic pain
    • The A to Z of pain
    • How is pain diagnosed?
    • Pain management
    • What is the role of age and gender in pain?
    • A pain primer: what do we know about pain?
    • What is the future of pain research?
    • Spine basics: the vertebrae, discs and spinal cord
    • The nervous system
    • Phantom pain: how does the brain feel?
    • Chili peppers, capsaicin and pain
    • Marijuana for pain treatment
    • Nerve blocks for pain treatment
    • Where can I get more information about pain?
  • Aneurysm (Brain) Brain aneurysm (cerebral aneurysm) is caused by microscopic damage to artery walls, infections of the artery walls, tumors,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aneurysm (Brain) Article
    • Brain aneurysm facts
    • What is a brain aneurysm and what causes a brain aneurysm?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of brain aneurysm?
    • How is brain aneurysm diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for brain aneurysm?
    • What is the outcome of brain aneurysm?
    • What are future directions for the treatment of brain aneurysm?
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal disorder) with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, increased flatus,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Article
    • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) definition
    • What causes irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What are the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • How is the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) made?
    • What are the treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What medications are used to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What about IBS and diet?
    • Is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) related to small bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)?
    • What is the prognosis for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
  • Pancreatic Cysts Pancreatic cysts are collections of fluid within the pancreas. Some are benign, malignant, or pseudocysts. There are two major...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pancreatic Cysts Article
    • What is the pancreas?
    • What are pancreatic cysts?
    • What are the symptoms of pancreatic cysts?
    • What are the causes of pancreatic cysts?
    • Pseudocysts
    • True cysts
    • How are pancreatic cysts diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for pancreatic cysts?
  • Chondromalacia Patella (Patellofemoral Syndrome) Chondromalacia patella (housemaid's knee or secretary's knee) results from misalignment of the kneecap as it slides over the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chondromalacia Patella (Patellofemoral Syndrome) Article
    • Chondromalacia patella facts
    • What is chondromalacia patella?
    • What causes chondromalacia patella?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of chondromalacia patella?
    • How is chondromalacia patella diagnosed?
    • How is chondromalacia patella treated?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) with chondromalacia patella?
    • Can chondromalacia patella be prevented?
  • Oral Cancer The term oral cancer includes cancer of the mouth (oral cavity) and the back of the mouth (oropharynx). Red and white patches...learn more »
    In This Article
    Oral Cancer Article
    • Oral cancer facts*
    • What is the oral cavity?
    • What is cancer?
    • Who's at risk for oral cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of oral cancer?
    • How is oral cancer diagnosed?
    • How is oral cancer treated?
    • Methods of treatment
    • What are the side effects of treatment for oral cancer?
    • What is rehabilitation for oral cancer?
    • What happens after treatment for oral cancer?
    • What does the future hold for patients with oral cancer?
    • What resources are available to patients with oral cancer?
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease) is a neurological disease that progresses rapidly. The disease attacks...learn more »
    In This Article
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Article
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis facts*
    • What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
    • Who gets ALS?
    • What are the symptoms of ALS?
    • How is ALS diagnosed?
    • What causes ALS?
    • How is ALS treated?
    • What research is being done on ALS?
    • How can I help research for ALS?
    • Where can I get more information about ALS?
  • Salivary Gland Cancer Salivary gland cancer is cancer that affects the parotid glands, sublingual glands, or the submandibular glands. Risk factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Salivary Gland Cancer Article
    • Salivary gland cancer facts*
    • What is salivary gland cancer?
    • What increases the risk of salivary gland cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of salivary gland cancer?
    • What exams and tests are used to detect and diagnose salivary gland cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for salivary gland cancer?
    • What tests are done to determine if salivary gland cancer has spread?
    • How does salivary gland cancer spread in the body?
    • What are the stages for salivary gland cancer?
    • What is the treatment for salivary gland cancer?
    • How does staging affect treatment options?
  • Degenerative Disc Disease & Sciatica Degenerative disc disease makes the disc more susceptible to herniation (rupture) which can lead to localized or radiating pain....learn more »
    In This Article
    Degenerative Disc Disease & Sciatica Article
    • Degenerative disc disease and sciatica facts
    • How is the spine designed?
    • What is the purpose of the spine and its discs?
    • What causes degenerative disc disease?
    • What are the symptoms of degenerative disc disease?
    • What are radiculopathy and sciatica? What are the symptoms?
    • How are degenerative disc disease, radiculopathy, and sciatica diagnosed?
    • How is radiculopathy treated?
    • What is bony encroachment and spinal stenosis?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) of degenerative disc disease, radiculopathy, and sciatica?
    • Can degenerative disc disease, radiculopathy, and sciatica be prevented?
  • Angina Angina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Angina Article
    • What is angina?
    • What causes angina?
    • What are the different types of angina?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of angina?
    • How is angina diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for angina?
    • Angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery
    • What are other methods are used to evaluate angina?
    • What is the prognosis for angina?
    • Can angina be prevented?
  • Male Breast Cancer Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast cancers, and most cases are found in men between the ages of 60 and 70. A man's...learn more »
    In This Article
    Male Breast Cancer Article
    • Male breast cancer facts
    • What is male breast cancer?
    • How common is male breast cancer?
    • What are causes and risk factors of male breast cancer?
    • What are the different types of male breast cancer?
    • What are male breast cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is male breast cancer diagnosed?
    • What is staging of male breast cancer?
    • What is the treatment for male breast cancer?
    • What is the outcome (prognosis) of male breast cancer?
  • Iliotibial Band Syndrome Iliotibial band syndrome is an overuse injury of the thigh and knee. Symptoms include knee pain and possible swelling. Treatment...learn more »
    In This Article
    Iliotibial Band Syndrome Article
    • Iliotibial band syndrome facts
    • What is iliotibial band syndrome?
    • What causes iliotibial band syndrome?
    • What are iliotibial band syndrome symptoms and signs?
    • How is iliotibial band syndrome diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for iliotibial band syndrome?
    • What stretches and exercises are beneficial for iliotibial band syndrome?
    • What exercises should be avoided with iliotibial band syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis for iliotibial band syndrome? Can iliotibial band syndrome be prevented?
    • Where can people find more information about iliotibial band syndrome?
  • Penis Cancer Signs and symptoms of penile cancer include a lump on the penis and redness, irritation, or a sore on the penis. Risk of penis...learn more »
    In This Article
    Penis Cancer Article
    • Penis cancer facts*
    • What is cancer of the penis?
    • What are causes and risk factors for penis cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of penis cancer?
    • How is penile cancer diagnosed?
    • What factors affect prognosis and treatment of penile cancer?
    • How is staging of penile cancer determined?
    • What is the treatment for penis cancer?
    • What are treatment options by stage?
    • Where can I get more information about penis cancer?
  • Balance Disorders Balance is a state of body equilibrium or stability. We often take for granted how dependent we are on a healthy balance system....learn more »
    In This Article
    Balance Disorders Article
    • What is a balance disorder?
    • How does the vestibular system work?
    • What are the symptoms of a balance disorder?
    • What causes a balance disorder?
    • What are some types of balance disorders?
    • How is a balance disorder diagnosed?
    • How is balance disorder treated?
    • How do I know if I have a balance disorder?
    • How can I help my doctor make a diagnosis?
    • What research is being done for balance disorders?
  • Migraine Headache Migraine headaches are severe headaches that are accompanies to sensitivity to light, sounds, and smells. They are often...learn more »
    In This Article
    Migraine Headache Article
    • What is a migraine?
    • What are the risk factors for migraine?
    • What causes migraines?
    • What triggers migraines?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of migraines?
    • How are migraines diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for migraines?
    • What self-care treatment measures work for migraines?
    • How are migraines managed during pregnancy?
    • How are migraines managed in children?
    • What is the prognosis for migraines?
    • Can migraines be prevented?
  • Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disabling brain disorder that may cause hallucinations and delusions and affect a person's ability to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Schizophrenia Article
    • Schizophrenia facts
    • What is schizophrenia?
    • What are the different types of schizophrenia?
    • How common is schizophrenia in children?
    • What is the history of schizophrenia?
    • What are causes of schizophrenia? Is it hereditary?
    • What are schizophrenia symptoms and signs?
    • How is schizophrenia diagnosed?
    • What are treatments for schizophrenia and the side effects of those treatments?
    • What is the prognosis for schizophrenia?
    • What research is being done on schizophrenia?
    • Where can people get more information about schizophrenia?
  • Spondylolisthesis The five types of spondylolisthesis include 1) dysplastic, 2) isthmic, 3) degenerative, 4) traumatic, and 5) pathologic. The most...learn more »
    In This Article
    Spondylolisthesis Article
    • Spondylolisthesis facts
    • What is spondylolisthesis?
    • What causes spondylolisthesis?
    • What are the risk factors for spondylolisthesis?
    • What are the symptoms of spondylolisthesis?
    • How is spondylolisthesis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for spondylolisthesis?
    • Can spondylolisthesis be prevented?
    • What are the complications of spondylolisthesis?
    • What is the outlook for spondylolisthesis?
  • Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis, a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease. Varying degrees of weakness of the voluntary muscles of the body...learn more »
    In This Article
    Myasthenia Gravis Article
    • Myasthenia gravis facts*
    • What is myasthenia gravis?
    • What causes myasthenia gravis?
    • What is the role of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis?
    • What are the symptoms of myasthenia gravis?
    • Who gets myasthenia gravis?
    • How is myasthenia gravis diagnosed?
    • How is myasthenia gravis treated?
    • What are myasthenic crises?
    • What is the prognosis?
    • What research is being done?
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Cancer Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cancer Article
    • Cancer facts
    • What is cancer?
    • What causes cancer?
    • What are cancer symptoms and signs?
    • What are the different types of cancer?
    • How is cancer diagnosed?
    • How is cancer staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for cancer?
    • Can cancer be prevented?
    • Where can people find more information about cancer?
  • Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is also known as a flesh-eating bacterial infection, Fournier's gangrene, suppurative fasciitis, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Necrotizing Fasciitis Article
    • Necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) facts
    • What is necrotizing fasciitis?
    • Do different types of necrotizing fasciitis exist?
    • What causes necrotizing fasciitis?
    • What are necrotizing fasciitis symptoms and signs?
    • How is necrotizing fasciitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for necrotizing fasciitis?
    • How is necrotizing fasciitis prevented? Is necrotizing fasciitis contagious?
    • Who is at risk to get necrotizing fasciitis?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) for patients with necrotizing fasciitis? What are complications of necrotizing fasciitis?
    • What are some additional sources of information on necrotizing fasciitis?
  • Stroke A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Article
    • Stroke facts
    • What is a stroke?
    • What are the different types of stroke?
    • What causes a stroke?
    • What are the risk factors for stroke?
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the warning signs of a stroke?
    • What are the symptoms of a stroke?
    • How is a stroke diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for stroke?
    • What is the prognosis for stroke?
    • Is recovery after a stroke possible?
    • What is stroke rehabilitation?
    • Can strokes be prevented?
  • Achilles Tendon Rupture The Achilles tendon is the body's largest and strongest tendon. Repeated stress is the usual cause of a ruptured Achilles tendon....learn more »
    In This Article
    Achilles Tendon Rupture Article
    • Achilles tendon rupture facts
    • Function of Achilles tendon
    • Blood supply of Achilles tendon
    • What is an Achilles tendon rupture?
    • What causes an Achilles tendon rupture?
    • What are Achilles tendon rupture symptoms and signs?
    • How is a ruptured Achilles tendon diagnosed?
    • What are treatment options for an Achilles tendon rupture?
    • What are possible complications of an Achilles tendon rupture?
    • What is the recovery time for an Achilles tendon rupture?
    • What rehabilitation exercises are recommended following an Achilles tendon rupture?
    • How can an Achilles tendon rupture be prevented?
    • Are there any home remedies for an Achilles tendon rupture?
    • What is the prognosis of an Achilles tendon rupture?
  • Vasculitis Vasculitis is a general term for a group of uncommon diseases which feature inflammation of the blood vessels. Each form of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vasculitis Article
    • Vasculitis facts
    • What is vasculitis?
    • What causes vasculitis, and what are examples of diseases with vasculitis?
    • What are the symptoms of vasculitis?
    • How is vasculitis diagnosed?
    • How is vasculitis treated?
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), also known by the name Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a hormonal problem that causes women to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Article
    • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) facts
    • What is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?
    • What are the symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?
    • What causes polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?
    • How is PCOS diagnosed?
    • What conditions or complications can be associated with PCOS?
    • What treatments are available for PCOS?
  • Head and Neck Cancer Head and neck cancer is cancer of the oral cavity, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, or lymph...learn more »
    In This Article
    Head and Neck Cancer Article
    • Head and neck cancer facts*
    • What is cancer?
    • What kinds of cancers are considered cancers of the head and neck?
    • How common are head and neck cancers?
    • What causes head and neck cancers?
    • What are common symptoms of head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers diagnosed?
    • What health professionals treat patients with head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers treated?
    • Are clinical trials (research studies) available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • What rehabilitation or support options are available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • Is follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve?
    • What can people who have had head and neck cancer do to reduce the risk of developing a second primary (new) cancer?
  • Claudication Intermittent claudication, or pain and cramping in the lower leg is caused by inadequate blood flow to the leg muscles. This lack...learn more »
    In This Article
    Claudication Article
    • What is claudication?
    • What causes claudication?
    • What are the symptoms of claudication?
    • Why does claudication come and go?
    • What can cause the artery narrowing that leads to claudication?
    • Who typically is affected by claudication?
    • What are the risk factors for claudication and peripheral vascular disease?
    • How is claudication diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for claudication?
    • Can claudication be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis and treatment for patients with intermittent claudication?
  • Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic arthritis is a disease that causes skin and joint inflammation. Symptoms include painful, stiff, and swollen joints,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Psoriatic Arthritis Article
    • Psoriatic arthritis facts
    • What is psoriatic arthritis?
    • What causes psoriatic arthritis?
    • What are risk factors for developing psoriatic arthritis?
    • What are psoriatic arthritis symptoms and signs?
    • How does the doctor diagnose psoriatic arthritis?
    • What is the treatment for psoriatic arthritis?
    • Disease-modifying medications
    • What are complications of psoriatic arthritis?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for patients with psoriatic arthritis?
    • Can psoriatic arthritis be prevented?
    • Is there a psoriatic arthritis diet?
    • What does the future hold for patients with psoriatic arthritis?
  • Cluster Headaches The term cluster headache is a type of headache that recurs over a period of time. There are episodes that last one to three...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cluster Headaches Article
    • What are cluster headaches?
    • Who gets cluster headaches?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of cluster headaches?
    • What causes cluster headaches?
    • What triggers cluster headaches?
    • How are cluster headaches diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cluster headaches?
    • Can cluster headaches be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for cluster headaches?
  • Brain Lesions (Lesions on the Brain) Brain lesions (lesions on the brain) are caused by trauma, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, cancers, other diseases, stroke,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Lesions (Lesions on the Brain) Article
    • Brain lesions facts
    • Brain anatomy
    • What are brain lesions?
    • What causes brain lesions?
    • What are the types of brain lesions?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of brain lesions?
    • How are brain lesions diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for brain lesions?
    • Can brain lesions be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for brain lesions?
  • Morton's Neuroma A Morton's neuroma is an inflamed nerve between the bones at the ball of the foot. Symptoms include a burning, sharp pain on the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Morton's Neuroma Article
    • Morton's neuroma facts
    • What is Morton's neuroma?
    • What causes a Morton's neuroma?
    • What are risk factors for developing a Morton's neuroma?
    • What are symptoms of a Morton's neuroma?
    • How is a Morton's neuroma diagnosed?
    • How is a Morton's neuroma treated?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for a Morton's neuroma?
    • Can a Morton's neuroma be prevented?
  • Scleritis Scleritis is inflammation of the white part of the eye. It may be caused by a serious underlying condition, such as an autoimmune...learn more »
    In This Article
    Scleritis Article
    • Scleritis facts
    • What is scleritis?
    • What is the sclera?
    • What causes scleritis?
    • What are risk factors for scleritis?
    • What are symptoms of scleritis?
    • What are signs of scleritis?
    • How is scleritis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for scleritis?
    • What are the complications of scleritis?
    • What is the prognosis for scleritis?
    • Can scleritis be prevented?
    • What research is being done on scleritis?
  • Facial Nerve Problems and Bell's Palsy (Bell Palsy) Facial nerve disorders affect the muscles of the face. There are many causes of facial nerve disorders including trauma, nervous...learn more »
    In This Article
    Facial Nerve Problems and Bell's Palsy (Bell Palsy) Article
    • Facial nerve problems and Bell's palsy facts
    • What is the facial nerve?
    • What are symptoms of a facial nerve problem?
    • What conditions affect the facial nerve?
    • How are the causes of facial nerve dysfunction diagnosed?
    • What is and what causes Bell's palsy?
    • What are the symptoms of Bell's palsy?
    • What is the mechanism of injury in Bell's palsy?
    • What are treatment options of facial nerve paralysis?
    • What is the treatment for eye problems from facial nerve disorder?
    • What surgical reconstruction options are available?
    • What is the prognosis for facial nerve problems?
    • Can facial nerve problems be prevented?
  • Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is a condition in which there is an absense of menstrual periods in a woman. There are two types of amenorrhea, 1)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Amenorrhea Article
    • Amenorrhea facts
    • What is amenorrhea?
    • What causes amenorrhea?
    • What are the symptoms of amenorrhea?
    • When should I seek medical care for amenorrhea?
    • How is amenorrhea diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for amenorrhea?
    • What are the complications of amenorrhea?
    • Can amenorrhea be prevented?
    • What is the outlook for a woman suffering from amenorrhea?
  • Paget's Disease Paget's disease is a chronic bone disorder due to irregular breakdown and formation of bone tissue. Symptoms of Paget's disease...learn more »
    In This Article
    Paget's Disease Article
    • Paget's disease facts
    • What is Paget's disease?
    • What causes Paget's disease?
    • What are Paget's disease symptoms?
    • How is Paget's disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Paget's disease?
    • What is the prognosis for Paget's disease?
    • Who discovered Paget's disease?
    • Where can I find more information about Paget's disease?
  • Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is fairly uncommon. There are two types of vaginal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Risk...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vaginal Cancer Article
    • Vaginal cancer facts*
    • What is vaginal cancer?
    • What are causes and risk factors for vaginal cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of vaginal cancer?
    • What tests are used to diagnose vaginal cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for vaginal cancer?
    • How is staging determined for vaginal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for vaginal cancer?
    • Treatment options by stage
    • Treatment options for recurrent vaginal cancer
    • Where can I find more information about vaginal cancer?
  • Hodgkin's Disease Hodgkin's disease is a cancer of the lymphatic system with symptoms that include unexplained, recurring fevers, unexplained...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hodgkin's Disease Article
    • Hodgkin's lymphoma facts*
    • What is the lymph system?
    • What is Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What are the types of Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • How is the staging determined for Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What are the stages of Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What is the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • Who are the doctor's who treat Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • How do people get a second opinion for Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • Clinical trials for treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Targeted therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Stem cell transplantation for Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Nutrition during cancer treatment
    • What is the follow-up care after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What other support is available for cancer patients?
  • Huntington's Disease Huntington's disease is the result of degeneration of neurons in areas of the brain. Huntington's disease is an inherited...learn more »
    In This Article
    Huntington's Disease Article
    • Introduction to Huntington's disease
    • What causes Huntington's disease?
    • How is Huntington's disease inherited?
    • What are the symptoms and major effects of Huntington's disease?
    • At what age does Huntington's disease appear?
    • How is Huntington's disease diagnosed?
    • What is presymptomatic testing?
    • How is the presymptomatic test conducted?
    • How does a person decide whether to be tested?
    • Is there a treatment for Huntington's disease?
    • What kind of care does an individual with Huntington's disease need?
    • What community resources are available for Huntington's disease?
    • What research is being done on Huntington's disease?
    • How can I help?
    • What is the role of voluntary organizations?
    • Where can I get more information about Huntington's disease?
  • Liver Cancer Liver cancer is cancer of the liver cells (hepatocellular carcinoma) or of the ducts in the liver (cholangiocarcinoma). Liver...learn more »
    In This Article
    Liver Cancer Article
    • What is liver cancer?
    • What is metastatic liver cancer?
    • What causes liver cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for liver cancer?
    • What are liver cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is liver cancer diagnosed?
    • How is liver cancer staged?
    • What is the treatment for liver cancer?
    • What is the follow-up after treatment for liver cancer?
    • What is the prognosis of liver cancer? What are the survival rates for liver cancer?
    • Are there alternative and complementary therapies for liver cancer?
    • Can liver cancer be prevented?
  • Rotator Cuff Disease Rotator cuff disease is damage to any of the four tendons that stabilize the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain and tenderness are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Rotator Cuff Disease Article
    • What is the rotator cuff?
    • What causes rotator cuff disease?
    • How is the rotator cuff injured?
    • What are symptoms of rotator cuff disease?
    • How is rotator cuff disease diagnosed?
    • How is rotator cuff disease treated?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for rotator cuff disease?
    • Can rotator cuff disease be prevented?
    • Rotator cuff disease facts
  • Optic Neuritis Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve, the structure that connects the eye to the brain. The precise cause of optic...learn more »
    In This Article
    Optic Neuritis Article
    • Optic neuritis facts
    • What is optic neuritis?
    • What causes optic neuritis?
    • What are symptoms of optic neuritis?
    • What are signs of optic neuritis?
    • How is optic neuritis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for optic neuritis?
    • What is the prognosis for optic neuritis?
    • Where can I find more information on optic neuritis?
  • Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which the patient has frequent urination. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus include irritable,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes Insipidus Article
    • Diabetes insipidus facts*
    • What is diabetes insipidus, and what are the symptoms of the condition?
    • What is the difference between diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus?
    • How is fluid in the body normally regulated?
    • What are the types of diabetes insipidus?
    • How is diabetes insipidus diagnosed?
    • For more information about diabetes insipidus
  • Meniere's Disease Meniere disease (idiopathic endolymphatic hydrops) is an inner ear disorder with symptoms that include vertigo, tinnitus, hearing...learn more »
    In This Article
    Meniere's Disease Article
    • Meniere's disease facts
    • What is Meniere's disease?
    • What causes Meniere's disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Meniere's disease?
    • How is Meniere's disease diagnosed?
    • How can Meniere's disease be treated?
  • Double Vision Double vision (diplopia) is a symptom that my indicate Graves' disease, myasthenia gravis, stroke, multiple sclerosis,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Double Vision Article
    • What is double vision?
    • What causes double vision?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of double vision?
    • How is the cause of double vision diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for double vision?
    • Can double vision be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for double vision?
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (In Children and Adults) Autism in children and adults is a developmental disorder, characterized by impaired development in communication, social...learn more »
    In This Article
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (In Children and Adults) Article
    • Autism facts
    • What is autism?
    • How does autism impact the family?
    • What are the different types of autism?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of autism in children and adults?
    • Impairment of social interaction and communication
    • Behaviors
    • What causes autism?
    • Is autism genetic?
    • Do vaccines play a role in autism?
    • How is autism diagnosed in children and adults?
    • How is autism treated in children and adults?
    • What common sociobehavioral interventions are used to treat autism?
    • What are the common medications used to treat the symptoms of autism?
    • Can diet and supplements play a role in the treatment of autism?
    • What is the prognosis for children and adults with autism?
    • For more information about autism in children and adults
  • Tourette Syndrome Tourette syndrome is disorder, which symptoms include involuntary facial tics, motor tics, and vocal tics. The cause of Tourette...learn more »
    In This Article
    Tourette Syndrome Article
    • What is Tourette syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of Tourette syndrome?
    • What is the course of Tourette syndrome?
    • Can people with Tourette syndrome control their tics?
    • What causes Tourette syndrome?
    • What disorders are associated with Tourette syndrome?
    • How is Tourette syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is Tourette syndrome treated?
    • Is Tourette syndrome inherited?
    • What is the prognosis for Tourette syndrome?
    • What is the best educational setting for children with Tourette syndrome?
    • What research is being done for Tourette syndrome?
    • Where can I get more information about Tourette syndrome?
  • Placenta Previa Placenta previa is a condition during pregnancy when the placenta lies low in the uterus either partly or completely blocking the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Placenta Previa Article
    • Placenta previa facts
    • What is placenta previa?
    • What are the types of placenta previa?
    • Who is at risk for placenta previa?
    • What causes placenta previa?
    • What are the symptoms of placenta previa?
    • How is placenta previa diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for placenta previa?
    • What are possible complications of placenta previa?
    • Can placenta previa be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for placenta previa?
  • Pheochromocytoma Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland. Pheochromocytomas are quite rare and the vast majority of them are entirely...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pheochromocytoma Article
    • Pheochromocytoma facts
    • What is a pheochromocytoma?
    • What are the symptoms of a pheochromocytoma?
    • What conditions are associated with pheochromocytomas?
    • What else can cause the symptoms of a pheochromocytoma?
    • How is pheochromocytoma diagnosed?
    • How is a pheochromocytoma treated?
    • What is the prognosis with a pheochromocytoma?
  • Lymphedema Lymphedema is a condition in which one or more extremities become swollen as the result of an impaired flow of the lymphatic...learn more »
    In This Article
    Lymphedema Article
    • Lymphedema facts
    • What is lymphedema?
    • What causes lymphedema?
    • What are the symptoms of lymphedema?
    • How is lymphedema diagnosed?
    • What are possible treatments for lymphedema?
    • What are complications of lymphedema?
    • Can lymphedema be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for lymphedema?
    • Where can one get help and support for lymphedema?
  • Adult ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood behavioral problem that may persist into adulthood. About...learn more »
    In This Article
    Adult ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) Article
    • Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) facts
    • What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
    • What are causes and risk factors for adult ADHD?
    • How prevalent is adult ADHD?
    • What are symptoms and signs of adult ADHD?
    • How is ADHD in adults diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for adult ADHD? What medications treat adult ADHD?
    • Are there any home remedies for adult ADHD?
    • What are complications of adult ADHD?
    • What is the prognosis of adult ADHD?
    • Is it possible to prevent adult ADHD?
    • Are support groups available for those with adult ADHD?
    • Where can people find additional information on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is characterized by numerous cysts in the kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic...learn more »
    In This Article
    Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Article
    • Polycystic kidney disease facts*
    • What is polycystic kidney disease?
    • What is autosomal dominant PKD?
    • What are the symptoms of autosomal dominant PKD?
    • How is autosomal dominant PKD diagnosed?
    • How is autosomal dominant PKD treated?
    • What is autosomal recessive PKD?
    • What are the symptoms of autosomal recessive PKD?
    • How is autosomal recessive PKD diagnosed?
    • How is autosomal recessive PKD treated?
    • What is a genetic disease?
    • Hope through research
  • Prolactinoma (Pituitary Tumor) Prolactinoma is an adenoma (benign tumor) of the pituitary gland. Causes of many prolactinomas are unknown. Symptoms in women...learn more »
    In This Article
    Prolactinoma (Pituitary Tumor) Article
    • Prolactinoma facts
    • What is a prolactinoma (pituitary tumor)?
    • What is the normal function of prolactin?
    • What is the pituitary gland?
    • Where is the pituitary gland located?
    • What problems are caused by a pituitary tumor?
    • How common is a prolactinoma?
    • What are the types of prolactinomas?
    • What causes a prolactinoma?
    • What symptoms are caused by a prolactinoma?
    • Aside from a prolactinoma, what else can cause prolactin levels to rise?
    • How is a prolactinoma diagnosed?
    • What follow-up tests are done after a prolactinoma diagnosis?
    • What are the goals of treatment of a prolactinoma?
    • How is a prolactinoma treated?
    • What medications are used to treat prolactinomas?
    • What is the surgical treatment of a prolactinoma?
    • How do I choose a skilled neurosurgeon?
    • Does a prolactinoma affect pregnancy and oral contraceptives?
    • Do prolactinomas affect oral contraceptives?
    • Is osteoporosis a risk in women with high prolactin levels?
  • Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's disease is a common cause of dementia. Symptoms and warning signs of Alzheimer's disease include memory loss,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alzheimer's Disease Article
    • Alzheimer's disease facts
    • What is dementia?
    • What is Alzheimer's disease?
    • Who develops Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
    • Ten warning signs of Alzheimer's disease
    • What causes Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease?
    • How is the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease made?
    • What treatment and management options are available for Alzheimer's disease?
    • Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs)
    • Partial glutamate antagonists
    • Non-medication based treatments
    • Treatment of psychiatric symptoms
    • What is the prognosis for a person with Alzheimer's disease?
    • Caring for the caregiver and Alzheimer's disease resources
  • Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss of cartilage in the joints. Also...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteoarthritis Article
    • Osteoarthritis facts
    • What is osteoarthritis?
    • What causes osteoarthritis?
    • What are osteoarthritis symptoms and signs?
    • How is osteoarthritis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for osteoarthritis?
    • "If I have minimal or no symptoms with early signs of osteoarthritis, what should I do?"
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with osteoarthritis?
    • Can osteoarthritis be prevented?
    • What does the future hold for osteoarthritis?
    • Where can people get more information about osteoarthritis?
  • Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder cancer is a rare form of cancer with symptoms that include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gallbladder Cancer Article
    • Gallbladder cancer facts*
    • What is gallbladder cancer?
    • What are risk factors for gallbladder cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of gallbladder cancer?
    • What exams and tests are used to diagnose gallbladder cancer?
    • What factors affects the prognosis for gallbladder cancer?
    • How is the staging of gallbladder cancer determined?
    • What is the treatment for gallbladder cancer?
    • Where can people get more information about gallbladder cancer?
  • Herniated Disc A herniated disc may be caused by injury or degeneration from age. Symptoms depend on the location of the herniation and whether...learn more »
    In This Article
    Herniated Disc Article
    • Herniated disc facts
    • How are the spine and its discs designed?
    • What is a herniated disc? What causes it?
    • What are symptoms of a herniated disc?
    • How is a herniated disc diagnosed?
    • How is a herniated disc treated?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for a herniated disc?
    • Can a herniated disc be prevented?
  • Aortic Dissection Aortic dissection is a small tear in the large blood vessel that leads from the heart and supplies blood to the body. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aortic Dissection Article
    • Aortic dissection facts
    • Introduction to aortic dissection
    • What are the causes of aortic dissection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of aortic dissection?
    • How is aortic dissection diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for aortic dissection?
    • What is the prognosis for aortic dissection?
    • Can aortic dissection be prevented?
  • Paget Disease of the Breast Paget's disease is a rare form of cancer that forms in or around the nipple and frequently coexists with breast cancer. The exact...learn more »
    In This Article
    Paget Disease of the Breast Article
    • Paget disease of the breast key points
    • What is Paget disease of the breast?
    • Who gets Paget disease of the breast?
    • What causes Paget disease of the breast?
    • What are the symptoms of Paget disease of the breast?
    • How is Paget disease of the breast diagnosed?
    • How is Paget disease of the breast treated?
    • What is the prognosis for people with Paget disease of the breast?
    • What research studies are under way on Paget disease of the breast?
  • Cauda Equina Syndrome Cauda equina syndrome is a medical emergency condition that is caused by the uncommon compression of the nerves at the end of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cauda Equina Syndrome Article
    • Cauda equina syndrome facts
    • What is cauda equina syndrome?
    • What are the causes of cauda equina syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of cauda equina syndrome?
    • How is cauda equina syndrome diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cauda equina syndrome?
    • Can cauda equina syndrome be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for cauda equina syndrome?
  • Urethral Cancer Urethral cancer is a rare form of cancer that primarily affects white females, people over 60 years of age, and those who have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urethral Cancer Article
    • Urethral cancer facts*
    • What is urethral cancer?
    • What are risk factors for urethral cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of urethral cancer?
    • How is urethral cancer diagnosed?
    • What is the prognosis for urethral cancer?
    • How is staging of urethral cancer determined?
    • What are the treatment options for urethral cancer?
    • What is the treatment for anterior urethral cancer?
    • What is the treatment for posterior urethral cancer?
    • What is the treatment for recurrent urethral cancer?
    • Where can people find more information about urethral cancer?
  • Kyphosis Kyphosis is outward curvature of the thoracic spine (upper back). Abnormal kyphosis results in the appearance of a hunchback,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kyphosis Article
    • Kyphosis facts
    • What is kyphosis?
    • What are the symptoms of kyphosis?
    • What causes abnormal kyphosis? What are the types of kyphosis?
    • When should you seek medical attention?
    • What tests is your physician likely to obtain?
    • How is abnormal kyphosis treated?
    • What are the potential complications of surgery for kyphosis?
    • What ongoing care is required for patients with kyphosis?
    • How can I prevent kyphosis?
    • What is the prognosis for kyphosis?
  • Bone Cancer Second Source article from Government...learn more »
  • Thymoma Thymoma is an uncommon cancer of the thymus gland. Many thymomas are asymptomatic. When symptoms do occur, they include chest...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thymoma Article
    • Thymoma facts
    • What is thymoma?
    • What causes thymoma, and what are risk factors for thymoma?
    • What are signs and symptoms of thymoma?
    • What other medical conditions are associated with thymoma?
    • How is thymoma diagnosed?
    • What are the stages of thymoma?
    • What is the treatment for thymoma?
    • What is the prognosis for thymoma?
    • Can thymoma be prevented?
  • Knee Injury Knee injuries, especially meniscus tears, are common in contact sports. Symptoms and signs of a torn meniscus include knee pain,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Knee Injury Article
    • Knee injury facts
    • What are the different types of knee injuries?
    • What causes a knee injury?
    • What are risk factors for a knee injury?
    • What are knee injury symptoms and signs?
    • How is a knee injury diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a knee injury?
    • What exercises are recommended, and what exercises should be avoided during rehabilitation for a knee injury?
    • What is the recovery time for a knee injury?
    • What is the prognosis of a knee injury?
    • Can knee injuries be prevented?
  • Carcinoid Syndrome and Carcinoid Tumor A carcinoid tumor is a tumor that develops from enterochromaffin cells. The important characteristic of carcinoid tumors that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Carcinoid Syndrome and Carcinoid Tumor Article
    • Carcinoid tumor facts
    • What is a carcinoid tumor?
    • What is carcinoid syndrome?
    • How common are carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis and natural history of carcinoid tumors?
    • Where do carcinoid tumors occur?
    • How are carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome diagnosed?
    • How are carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome treated?
  • Spinal Cord Injury: Treatments and Rehabilitation When vertebrae are broken or dislocated, the result can cause traumatic injury to the spinal cord. A spinal cord injury can have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Spinal Cord Injury: Treatments and Rehabilitation Article
    • Spinal Cord Injury Facts
    • What is the spinal cord injury?
    • What are the causes of spinal cord injury?
    • What are the symptoms of spinal cord injury?
    • How is a spinal cord injury diagnosed?
    • How is a spinal cord injury treated?
    • What is the outlook for patients with spinal cord injury?
    • Is there a cure for spinal cord injury?
    • Where can I get more information on spinal cord injury?
    • NIH spinal cord injury: treatments and rehabilitation
    • What Is a Spinal Cord Injury?
    • How Does the Spinal Cord Work?
    • What Happens When the Spinal Cord Is Injured?
    • What Are the Immediate Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury?
    • How Does a Spinal Cord Injury Affect the Rest of the Body?
    • How Does Rehabilitation Help People Recover From Spinal Cord Injuries?
    • How Is Research Helping Spinal Cord Injury Patients?
    • The Future of Spinal Cord Research
  • Shoulder and Neck Pain Shoulder and neck pain may be caused by bursitis, a pinched nerve, whiplash, tendinitis, a herniated disc, or a rotator cuff...learn more »
    In This Article
    Shoulder and Neck Pain Article
    • What is shoulder and neck pain?
    • What causes shoulder and neck pain?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of shoulder and neck pain?
    • When should I seek medical care?
    • How is shoulder and neck pain diagnosed?
    • How can I take care of shoulder and neck pain at home?
    • How is shoulder and neck pain treated medically?
    • What is the follow-up for shoulder and neck pain?
    • How can I prevent shoulder and neck pain?
    • What is the prognosis for shoulder and neck pain?
  • Gangrene Gangrene may result when blood flow to a tissue is lost or not adequate to keep the tissue alive. There are two types of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gangrene Article
    • Gangrene facts
    • What is gangrene?
    • What is the difference between wet and dry gangrene?
    • What causes gangrene?
    • What are gangrene symptoms and signs?
    • How is gangrene diagnosed?
    • How is gangrene treated?
    • How can gangrene be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for a patient with gangrene?
  • Frozen Shoulder A frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) is when the shoulder joint experiences a significant loss in its range of motion due to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Frozen Shoulder Article
    • Frozen shoulder facts
    • What is a frozen shoulder?
    • What causes a frozen shoulder?
    • What are symptoms and signs of a frozen shoulder?
    • How is a frozen shoulder diagnosed?
    • What conditions can mimic a frozen shoulder?
    • What is the treatment for a frozen shoulder?
    • What is the prognosis of a frozen shoulder?
    • Can frozen shoulder be prevented?
  • Mucormycosis Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) is a fungal infection caused by Zygomycetes. Symptoms and signs include fever, headache, coughing,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Mucormycosis Article
    • Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) facts
    • What is mucormycosis?
    • What causes mucormycosis?
    • What are risk factors for mucormycosis?
    • What are symptoms and signs of mucormycosis?
    • How is mucormycosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment of mucormycosis?
    • What are complications of mucormycosis?
    • What is the prognosis of mucormycosis?
    • Can mucormycosis be prevented?
    • What research is being done on mucormycosis?
    • Where can people find more information on mucormycosis?
  • In This Article
    Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) Article
    • Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) definition
    • What are the causes of primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • What are the risk factors for primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms for primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • How is the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis made?
    • What is the treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • What are the complications of primary biliary cirrhosis?
    • Can primary biliary cirrhosis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for someone with primary biliary cirrhosis?
  • Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) is a rare type of cancer that arises from cells that line the drainage system from the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Article
    • What is bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma)?
    • What are the symptoms of bile duct cancer?
    • How is bile duct cancer diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bile duct cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for bile duct cancer?
    • Can bile duct cancer be prevented?
  • Hepatic Hemangioma Hepatic hemangiomas are referred to as tumors, however, they not malignant and do not become cancerous. Hemangiomas can occur in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hepatic Hemangioma Article
    • What is a hepatic hemangioma?
    • What are the symptoms of a hepatic hemangioma?
    • How is the diagnosis of a hepatic hemangioma made?
    • What is the treatment for hepatic hemangioma?
  • Child Abuse Approximately 40 million children suffer abuse every year around the world, and more than 1,500 children die of abuse in the U.S....learn more »
    In This Article
    Child Abuse Article
    • Child abuse facts
    • What is child abuse?
    • What are the different types of child abuse?
    • What are risk factors for child abuse?
    • What are symptoms and signs of child abuse?
    • How do physicians diagnose child abuse?
    • What is the treatment for child abuse?
    • What are the complications and prognosis of child abuse?
    • Is it possible to prevent child abuse?
    • What should people do if they suspect that a child is being abused?
    • Where can people find more information about child abuse?
  • Stuttering Stuttering is a speech disorder characterized by speech disruptions such as prolongations of speech sounds, syllables or words,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stuttering Article
    • What is stuttering?
    • Who stutters?
    • How is speech normally produced?
    • What causes stuttering?
    • How is stuttering diagnosed?
    • How is stuttering treated?
    • What research is being done about stuttering?
    • Where can I get additional information?
  • Sprains and Strains An injury to a ligament is called a sprain, and an injury to muscle or tendon is called a strain. Sprains and strains may be...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sprains and Strains Article
    • Muscle sprains and strains facts
    • What is the difference between a sprain and a strain?
    • What causes a sprain or strain?
    • Where do sprains and strains usually occur?
    • What are sprain symptoms and signs?
    • How are sprains and strains diagnosed?
    • How are sprains and strains treated?
    • What is the recovery time for sprains and strains?
    • Can sprains and strains be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of sprains and strains?
    • Where can people find more information about sprains and strains?
  • Lewy Body Dementia (Dementia with Lewy Bodies) Lewy body dementia (LBD or dementia with Lewy bodies) is one the most common causes of dementia. There are two types of LBD: 1)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Lewy Body Dementia (Dementia with Lewy Bodies) Article
    • Lewy body dementia facts*
    • Lewy body dementia (LBD) introduction
    • What are Lewy bodies?
    • What is Lewy body dementia (LBD)?
    • What are the types of Lewy body dementia (LBD)?
    • Who is affected by Lewy body dementia (LBD)?
    • What are the causes and risk factors for Lewy body dementia (LBD)?
    • What are the common symptoms of Lewy body dementia (LBD)?
    • Cognitive symptoms of Lewy body dementia
    • Behavoiral and mood symptoms of Lewy body dementia
    • Sleep disorders associated with Lewy body dementia
    • Movement symptoms of Lewy body dementia
    • Other Lewy body dementia symptoms
    • How is Lewy body dementia (LBD) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment and management of Lewy body dementia (LBD)?
    • Medications for Lewy body dementia
    • Medications for cognitive symptoms
    • Medications for movement symptoms
    • Medications for sleep disorders
    • Medications for behavioral and mood problems
    • Other treatment considerations
  • Arteriovenous Malformation Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital disorder of blood vessels in the brain, brainstem, or spinal cord that is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Arteriovenous Malformation Article
    • What are arteriovenous malformations?
    • What are the symptoms of arteriovenous malformations?
    • How do arteriovenous malformations damage the brain and spinal cord?
    • Where do neurological arteriovenous malformations tend to form?
    • What are the health consequences of arteriovenous malformations?
    • What other types of vascular lesions affect the central nervous system?
    • What causes vascular lesions?
    • How are arteriovenous malformations and other vascular lesions detected?
    • How can arteriovenous malformations and other vascular lesions be treated?
    • What research is being done?
  • Nerve Disease and Bladder Control A nerve problem might affect your bladder control if the nerves that are supposed to carry messages between the brain and the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nerve Disease and Bladder Control Article
    • What bladder control problems does nerve damage cause?
    • What causes nerve damage?
    • How will the doctor test for nerve damage and bladder control problems?
    • What are the treatments for overactive bladder?
    • How do you do Kegel exercises?
    • What are the treatments for lack of coordination between the bladder and urethra?
    • What are the treatments for urine retention?
    • Hope through research
    • For more information
  • Pseudotumor Cerebri (Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension) Pseudotumor Cerebri (intracranial hypertension) is a condition where there is an increase in pressure of fluid surrounding the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pseudotumor Cerebri (Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension) Article
    • What is pseudotumor cerebri (Idiopathic intracranial hypertension)?
    • What are the symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri?
    • How is pseudotumor cerebri treated?
    • What is the prognosis for patient's with pseudotumorcerebri?
    • For more information about pseudotumor cerebri
  • Urinary Incontinence in Children Urinary incontinence in children (enuresis) is twice as common in boys as in girls and may occur during the daytime or nighttime....learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Incontinence in Children Article
    • Urinary incontinence in children facts
    • What is urinary incontinence?
    • How does the urinary system work?
    • What are the different types of urinary incontinence in children?
    • How common is urinary incontinence in children?
    • What causes nighttime incontinence in children?
    • What causes daytime incontinence in children?
    • How do you differentiate between organic and nonorganic causes of urinary incontinence?
    • What is the treatment for urinary incontinence in children?
    • What is the prognosis of urinary incontinence in children?
    • Where can people get more information on urinary incontinence in children?
  • Bowel Incontinence Bowel or fecal incontinence refers to the loss of voluntary control of stool, or bowel movements. The condition can include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bowel Incontinence Article
    • Bowel incontinence (fecal incontinence) definition
    • What causes bowel incontinence?
    • What are the symptoms of bowel incontinence?
    • How is bowel incontinence diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bowel incontinence?
    • What about bowel incontinence in children?
    • Can bowel incontinence be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for bowel incontinence?
  • Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Tennis elbow is also known as lateral epicondylitis. Symptoms of tennis elbow include tenderness and dull pain of the outer...learn more »
    In This Article
    Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Article
    • Tennis elbow facts
    • What is tennis elbow?
    • What causes tennis elbow?
    • What are tennis elbow risk factors?
    • What are symptoms of tennis elbow?
    • How do physicians diagnose tennis elbow?
    • What is the treatment for tennis elbow?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for tennis elbow?
    • Is it possible to prevent tennis elbow?
  • Turf Toe Turf toe is a sprain to the ligaments around the big toe joint. Symptoms and signs include pain, swelling, a popping sound, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Turf Toe Article
    • What causes turf toe?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of turf toe?
    • How is turf toe diagnosed?
    • How is turf toe treated? Is taping or rehab necessary in the treatment of turf toe?
    • Can turf toe be prevented?
  • Nasopharyngeal Cancer Nasopharyngeal cancer is a form of cancer in which malignant cells form in the nasopharynx tissues. Risk factors include being of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nasopharyngeal Cancer Article
    • What is nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What are risk factors for nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • How is nasopharyngeal cancer diagnosed?
    • What is the prognosis for nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What are the stages of nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What are treatment options by stage?
    • Where can I get more information about nasopharyngeal cancer?
  • Cardiomyopathy (Hypertrophic) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) affects many people today. Many people with HCM have no symptoms or only minor symptoms, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cardiomyopathy (Hypertrophic) Article
    • What is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
    • What causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
    • How is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy diagnosed?
    • How is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy treated?
    • What lifestyle changes are recommended to treat hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
    • What medications are used for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
    • What surgical procedures are used to treat hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
    • How can I prevent endocarditis?
  • Spina Bifida and Anencephaly (Neural Tube Defects) Spina bifida is the most common neural tube defect in the United States. There are four types of spina bifida; 1) occulta, 2)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Spina Bifida and Anencephaly (Neural Tube Defects) Article
    • Spina bifida facts*
    • Introduction to spina bifida
    • What is spina bifida?
    • What are the different types of spina bifida?
    • What causes spina bifida?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of spina bifida?
    • What are the complications of spina bifida?
    • How is spina bifida diagnosed?
    • How is spina bifida treated?
    • Can spina bifida be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for spina bifida?
    • What research is being done on spina bifida?
  • Aseptic Necrosis Aseptic necrosis (avascular necrosis or osteonecrosis) is a condition that develops when blood supply diminishes to an area of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aseptic Necrosis Article
    • Aseptic necrosis facts
    • What is aseptic necrosis?
    • What causes aseptic necrosis?
    • What are risk factors for aseptic necrosis?
    • What are symptoms of aseptic necrosis?
    • How is aseptic necrosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for aseptic necrosis?
    • What is the prognosis of aseptic necrosis?
    • Can aseptic necrosis be prevented?
  • Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer that usually afflicts children under 5 years of age. The cancer forms in the adrenal glands,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Neuroblastoma Article
    • Neuroblastoma facts*
    • What is neuroblastoma?
    • What are symptoms and signs of neuroblastoma?
    • What tests are used in the detection and diagnosis of neuroblastoma?
    • What is the prognosis for neuroblastoma?
    • What are the stages of neuroblastoma?
    • What is the treatment for neuroblastoma?
    • What are treatment options for neuroblastoma?
  • Eosinophilic Fasciitis Eosinophilic fasciitis is a skin disease that causes thickening and inflammation of the skin and fascia. Symptoms include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Eosinophilic Fasciitis Article
    • What are eosinophils?
    • What is fascia?
    • What is eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • What causes eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • What are symptoms and signs of eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • How is eosinophilic fasciitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for eosinophilic fasciitis?
    • Can eosinophilic fasciitis be prevented?
  • Calcific Bursitis Calcific bursitis is the calcification of the bursa caused by chronic inflammation of the bursa. Calcific bursitis most commonly...learn more »
    In This Article
    Calcific Bursitis Article
    • What is calcific bursitis?
    • What are causes and risk factors for calcific bursitis?
    • What are symptoms and signs of calcific bursitis?
    • How is calcific bursitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment of calcific bursitis?
    • What is the prognosis of calcific bursitis?
    • Can calcific bursitis be prevented?
  • Plant Thorn Synovitis Plant thorn synovitis (plant thorn arthritis) is joint inflammation caused by a thorn puncturing the joint and leaving residual...learn more »
    In This Article
    Plant Thorn Synovitis Article
    • Plant thorn arthritis facts
    • What is plant thorn arthritis?
    • What plants cause plant thorn arthritis?
    • What joints are typically involved in plant thorn arthritis?
    • What are plant thorn arthritis symptoms and signs?
    • How is plant thorn arthritis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for plant thorn arthritis?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) of plant thorn arthritis?
  • Cysticercosis (Pork Tapeworm Infection) Cysticercosis is an infection caused by Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Symptoms include seizures, lethargy, nausea and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cysticercosis (Pork Tapeworm Infection) Article
    • Cysticercosis (pork tapeworm infection) facts
    • What is cysticercosis?
    • What causes cysticercosis?
    • How is cysticercosis transmitted?
    • What are cysticercosis symptoms and signs?
    • How is cysticercosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cysticercosis?
    • What are the complications of cysticercosis?
    • How is cysticercosis prevented?
  • Hypersomnia Hypersomnia is a condition where a person has excessive daytime sleepiness and trouble staying awake during the day. Treatment...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypersomnia Article
    • Introduction to hypersomnia
    • What causes hypersomnia?
    • How is hypersomnia diagnosed?
    • How is hypersomnia treated?
  • Valley Fever Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) is a disease caused by the inhalation of the Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii fungus....learn more »
    In This Article
    Valley Fever Article
    • Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) facts
    • What is valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
    • What causes valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
    • How is valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) for valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
    • What are the risk factors for developing valley fever (coccidioidomycosis)?
    • Can valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) be prevented?
    • Is valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) contagious?
    • Where can one find more information on valley fever?
  • Cardiomyopathy (Dilated) Dilated Cardiomyopathy is a condition where the heart's ability to pump blood is decreased because the heart's main pumping...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cardiomyopathy (Dilated) Article
    • What Is dilated cardiomyopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
    • What causes Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
    • How is Dilated Cardiomyopathy diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
    • What surgeries are used to treat Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
  • Neuromyelitis Optica Neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) is a disease of the CNS that affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. People with...learn more »
    In This Article
    Neuromyelitis Optica Article
    • Neuromyelitis optica facts*
    • What is neuromyelitis optica?
    • What are the symptoms of neuromyelitis optica?
    • How is neuromyelitis optica diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for neuromyelitis optica?
    • What is the prognosis for neuromyelitis optica?
    • What research is being done?
  • Poland Syndrome Poland syndrome is a congenital malformation that affects one side of the body. Characteristics of Poland syndrome include the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Poland Syndrome Article
    • Poland syndrome facts
    • What is Poland syndrome?
    • Can Poland syndrome affect either side of the body?
    • How frequent is Poland syndrome?
    • What causes Poland syndrome?
    • What are the features of Poland syndrome?
    • What other defects are associated with Poland syndrome?
    • Does Poland syndrome run in families?
    • How is Poland syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is Poland syndrome treated?
    • What are the related (alternative) terms?
    • For more information
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative, invariably fatal brain disorder. CJD generally appears in the later...learn more »
    In This Article
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Article
    • What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)?
    • What are the symptoms of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
    • How is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnosed?
    • What causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
    • How is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease transmitted?
    • What research is taking place with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
    • How can I help research?
    • Where can I get more information about Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
    • How is the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease treated?
  • Osteochondritis Dissecans With osteochondritis dissecans, bone and its adjacent cartilage loses its blood supply. Though osteochondritis dissecans can...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteochondritis Dissecans Article
    • Osteochondritis dissecans facts
    • What is osteochondritis dissecans?
    • What causes osteochondritis dissecans?
    • What are symptoms of osteochondritis dissecans?
    • How is osteochondritis dissecans diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans?
    • What is the prognosis of osteochondritis dissecans?
    • Can osteochondritis dissecans be prevented?
  • Brief Psychotic Disorder Brief psychotic disorder is a short-term mental illness that features psychotic symptoms. There are three forms of brief...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brief Psychotic Disorder Article
    • What are the symptoms of brief psychotic disorder?
    • What causes brief psychotic disorder?
    • How common is brief psychotic disorder?
    • How is brief psychotic disorder diagnosed?
    • How is brief psychotic disorder treated?
    • What is the prognosis for people with brief psychotic disorder?
    • Can brief psychotic disorder be prevented?
  • Adult Brain Tumors Adult brain tumors are diseases in which cancer (malignant) cells begin to grow in the tissues of the brain. The brain controls...learn more »
    In This Article
    Adult Brain Tumors Article
    • Adult brain tumor facts*
    • What are adult brain tumors?
    • What are metastatic brain tumors?
    • What are the symptoms of an adult brain tumor?
    • What tests are used to find and diagnose adult brain tumors?
    • What is the grade of a tumor?
    • What are the types of adult brain tumors?
    • How are adult brain tumors treated?
    • Three types of standard treatment are used.
    • Other types of treatment that are being tested in clinical trials
    • Treatment options by type of adult brain tumor
    • Where can a patient get more information about adult brain tumors?
  • Post-Polio Syndrome Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a group of signs and symptoms that show up two to four decades after the initial polio infection....learn more »
    In This Article
    Post-Polio Syndrome Article
    • What is post-polio syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of post-polio syndrome?
    • What causes post-polio syndrome?
    • How is post-polio syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is post-polio syndrome treated?
    • What is the role of exercise in the treatment of post-polio syndrome?
    • Can post-polio syndrome be prevented?
    • What research is being conducted on post-polio syndrome?
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Dislocated Ankle (Ankle Dislocation) Symptoms and signs of a dislocated ankle include pain, swelling, bruising, ankle deformity, and possible numbness and tingling in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dislocated Ankle (Ankle Dislocation) Article
    • Dislocated ankle facts
    • What is a dislocated ankle?
    • What are causes and risk factors for an ankle dislocation?
    • What are dislocated ankle symptoms and signs?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose a dislocated ankle?
    • What is the treatment for a dislocated ankle?
    • What is the prognosis of an ankle dislocation?
    • Is it possible to prevent a dislocated ankle?
  • Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis (snail fever), a disease caused by parasites, causes a variety of symptoms and signs, such as cough, rash and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Schistosomiasis Article
    • Schistosomiasis facts
    • What is schistosomiasis?
    • What causes schistosomiasis?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of schistosomiasis?
    • How is schistosomiasis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for schistosomiasis?
    • When should people with schistosomiasis seek medical care?
    • What are the complications of schistosomiasis?
    • Can schistosomiasis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) for schistosomiasis?
  • The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) Digestion is the complex process of turning food you eat into the energy you need to survive. The digestive process also involves...learn more »
    In This Article
    The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) Article
    • Digestion definition
    • What is digestion?
    • The mouth
    • The pharynx and esophagus
    • The stomach and small intestine
    • The colon, rectum, and anus
    • Three accessory digestive organs (pancreas, liver, gallbladder)
  • Fungal Arthritis Fungal arthritis is inflammation of a joint by a fungus that has invaded the body and is growing in the normally sterile joint....learn more »
    In This Article
    Fungal Arthritis Article
    • Fungal arthritis facts
    • What is fungal arthritis?
    • What causes fungal arthritis?
    • What are risks for developing fungal arthritis?
    • What are fungal arthritis symptoms and signs?
    • How is fungal arthritis diagnosed?
    • How is fungal arthritis treated?
    • What is the prognosis of fungal arthritis?
    • Can fungal arthritis be prevented?
  • Meningococcemia Meningococcemia is a bloodstream infection caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcemia symptoms include fever, headache,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Meningococcemia Article
    • Meningococcemia facts
    • What is meningococcemia?
    • What causes meningococcemia?
    • What are risk factors for meningococcemia?
    • What are symptoms and signs of meningococcemia?
    • How is meningococcemia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for meningococcemia?
    • What is the prognosis of meningococcemia?
    • Is it possible to prevent meningococcemia?
    • Where can people find more information on meningococcemia?
    • What research is being done on meningococcemia?
  • Loeys-Dietz Syndrome Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a syndrome is an inherited genetic syndrome characterized by aortic aneurysms in children. Children with...learn more »
    In This Article
    Loeys-Dietz Syndrome Article
    • Loeys-Dietz syndrome facts
    • What is Loeys-Dietz syndrome?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of Loeys-Dietz syndrome?
    • Is Loeys-Dietz syndrome inherited?
    • What causes Loeys-Dietz syndrome?
    • How is Loeys-Dietz syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is Loeys-Dietz syndrome treated?
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Teens Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in teens is a disruption of neurocognitive functioning. Genetics contribute to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Teens Article
    • ADHD in teens introduction
    • What causes ADHD in teens?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose ADHD in teens?
    • What are the symptoms of ADHD in teens?
    • How does ADHD in teens affect executive function?
    • What kinds of difficulties do teens with ADHD face?
    • What are nonmedical treatment strategies for teen ADHD?
    • What stimulant medications are available to treat ADHD in teens?
    • What are the potential side effects of stimulant medications?
    • What non-stimulant medications are available to treat ADHD in teens?
    • What alternative treatments are available for ADHD in teens?
  • Shaken Baby Syndrome (Abusive Head Trauma) Shaken baby syndrome, or abusive head trauma, are the symptoms and signs that result from the violent shaking of an infant. These...learn more »
    In This Article
    Shaken Baby Syndrome (Abusive Head Trauma) Article
    • Shaken baby syndrome facts
    • What is shaken baby syndrome?
    • What causes shaken baby syndrome?
    • What are the risk factors for shaken baby syndrome?
    • What are shaken baby syndrome symptoms and signs?
    • How do physicians diagnose shaken baby syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for shaken baby syndrome?
    • What are complications and long-term effects of shaken baby syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis of shaken baby syndrome?
    • Is it possible to prevent shaken baby syndrome?
    • What can caregivers or parents do to calm a crying baby?
  • Breast Cancer Prevention Lifestyle changes, a healthy antioxidant-rich diet, exercise, and weight reduction can help reduce a woman's risk of developing...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Cancer Prevention Article
    • Introduction to breast cancer prevention
    • What are the biological causes of breast cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for developing breast cancer?
    • What is the importance of early breast cancer detection?
    • What are the advantages and limitations of mammography?
    • How frequently should women undergo mammography and breast examinations?
    • What is the risk of radiation with repeated mammography screening over the years?
    • How helpful are BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic tests in identifying women at risk?
    • What is the link between estrogen and breast cancer?
    • What are breast cancer prevention treatments?
    • Are there other breast cancer prevention measures?
    • Conclusion
  • Cardiomyopathy (Restrictive) Restrictive cardiomyopathy, the rarest form of cardiomyopathy, is a condition in which the walls of the lower chambers of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cardiomyopathy (Restrictive) Article
    • What is restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • What causes restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • How is restrictive cardiomyopathy diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • What lifestyle changes are recommended for restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • What medications are used for restrictive cardiomyopathy?
    • Can surgery treat restrictive cardiomyopathy?
  • Brucellosis The bacteria Brucella causes brucellosis, an infectious zoonotic disease in humans. Symptoms and signs include fatigue, fever,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brucellosis Article
    • Brucellosis facts
    • What is brucellosis?
    • What is the history of brucellosis?
    • What are causes of brucellosis?
    • What are risk factors for brucellosis?
    • How does brucellosis spread to humans?
    • What are symptoms and signs of brucellosis?
    • How do physicians diagnose brucellosis?
    • What are brucellosis treatments?
    • What is the prognosis of brucellosis?
    • Is it possible to prevent brucellosis? Is there a brucellosis vaccine?
  • Headaches in Children Kids get headaches and migraines too. Many adults with headaches started having them as kids, in fact, 20% of adult headache...learn more »
    In This Article
    Headaches in Children Article
    • Introduction to headaches in children
    • How common are headaches in children and adolescents?
    • What types of headaches do children and adolescents get?
    • What causes headaches is children and adolescents?
    • How are headaches evaluated and diagnosed in children and adolescents?
    • How are headaches treated in children and adolescents?
    • What happens after my child starts treatment?
    • Do children outgrow headaches?