moxifloxacin, Avelox

  • Pharmacy Author:
    Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD

    Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.

  • Medical and Pharmacy Editor: Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
    Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP

    Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP

    Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.

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What is moxifloxacin-oral, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?

Moxifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Other fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and ofloxacin (Floxin). Moxifloxacin works by blocking DNA gyrase enzyme, which is responsible for production and repair of bacterial DNA. Blocking of DNA gyrase leads to bacteria death and prevents worsening of infection. Moxifloxacin treats infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria like Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenza, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Moxifloxacin also treats infections caused by Clostridium perfringens, Chlamydophila pneumonia, and Mycoplasma pneumonia. FDA approved brand name moxifloxacin (Avelox) in December 1999.

What brand names are available for moxifloxacin-oral?

Avelox

Is moxifloxacin-oral available as a generic drug?

GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes

Do I need a prescription for moxifloxacin-oral?

Yes

What are the side effects of moxifloxacin-oral?

Side effects of moxifloxacin are nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, QT prolongation, and photosensitivity.

Rare allergic reactions have been described, such as hives and anaphylaxis (shock). Moxifloxacin should be used with caution in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures, because rare seizures have been reported in patients receiving moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin should be avoided in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age, as safe use in these patients has not been established.

Moxifloxacin as well as other antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, has been associated with tendinitis and even rupture of tendons, particularly the Achilles tendon. This risk is especially increased in patients over 60 or patients taking corticosteroids ( for example prednisone). Many antibiotics, including moxifloxacin, can alter the normal bacteria in the colon and encourage overgrowth of a bacterium responsible for the development of inflammation of the colon, (C. difficile or pseudomembranous colitis). Patients who develop signs of pseudomembranous colitis after starting moxifloxacin (diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and possibly shock) should contact their physician immediately.

Fluoroquinolones have neuromuscular blocking activity and can worsen muscles weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis. They also worsen low blood glucose levels when combined with sulfonylureas (for example, glyburide [Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase, Prestab]).

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What is the dosage for moxifloxacin-oral?

Acute bacterial sinus infection: Take 1 tablet (400 mg) by mouth or 400 mg injection once daily for 5 to 10 days.

Chronic bacterial bronchitis: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 5 days.

Community-acquired pneumonia: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 7 to 14 days.

Complicated skin and skin structure infections: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 7 to 21 days.

Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 7 days.

Complicated intra-abdominal infections: Take 400 mg by mouth or injection once daily for 5 to 14 days.

Safe and effective use of moxifloxacin is not established in patients under the age of 18 years.

Which drugs or supplements interact with moxifloxacin-oral?

Moxifloxacin administration should be separated from aluminum and magnesium containing antacids, sucralfate (Carafate), and multivitamins because they can lower absorption of moxifloxacin and reduce its effectiveness. They should be administered 4 hours before or 8 hours after moxifloxacin.

Moxifloxacin should be used with caution with warfarin (Coumadin) because moxifloxacin can increase the effect of warfarin and risks of bleeding and bruising.

Moxifloxacin should be used with caution with sotalol (Betapace) because it can contribute to abnormal heart rhythm.

Is moxifloxacin-oral safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?

There are no adequate studies done on moxifloxacin to determine safe and effective use in pregnant women. It should only be used if clearly needed.

Moxifloxacin enters breast milk. Mothers should decide whether to stop breastfeeding or discontinue moxifloxacin.

What else should I know about moxifloxacin-oral?

What preparations of moxifloxacin-oral are available?

Tablets: 400 mg. Injection: 400 mg/250 ml

How should I keep moxifloxacin-oral stored?

Store moxifloxacin tablets between temperatures of 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F).

REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information

Last Editorial Review: 10/7/2014

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Reviewed on 10/7/2014
References
REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information

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