morphine high potency injection (Astramorph, Duramorph, Infumorph) (cont.)

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Medical and Pharmacy Editor:

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Combining alcohol and other sedatives with morphine can lead to increased sedation and even cause confusion.

Fluoxetine (Prozac) may increase blood levels and the effect of morphine leading to increased side effects.

Morphine should also be avoided in patients treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) due to enhance toxicity of morphine including confusion, high blood pressure, tremor, hyperactivity, coma, and death. Drugs in this class include isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), selegiline (Eldepryl), and procarbazine (Matulane), and linezolid (Zyvox). Morphine should not be administered within 14 days of stopping an MAOI.

PREGNANCY: Morphine injection should only be given to pregnant women when no other method of controlling pain is available and there are methods to monitor the fetus. Newborns may exhibit withdrawal symptoms if chronic dosing is used.

NURSING MOTHERS: Morphine is excreted in breast milk, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics committee states that it is safe to use while nursing

SIDE EFFECTS: The most frequent adverse reactions of morphine include dry mouth, constipation, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, and difficulty urinating. Other side effects include low blood pressure, slowed heart rate, itching, fever, confusion, headache, weakness, and decreased oxygen delivery to the body. Patients may also develop anemia with intrathecal injection, and pain at the injection site. The elderly may be more sensitive to adverse effects. Morphine has the potential to be habit forming. Tolerance and physical and psychological dependence may occur with prolonged use. Seizures may result from high doses. Overdoses may cause respiratory depression, coma, and death.

REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information


Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/16/2014


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