metformin and sitagliptin (Janumet) (cont.)
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
Medical and Pharmacy Editor:
Metformin is an oral medication that lowers blood glucose by increasing the sensitivity of liver, muscle, fat, and other tissues to the effects of insulin. Increasing the sensitivity of tissues to insulin causes more glucose to be removed from blood and thereby reduces the level of glucose in the blood. In scientific studies, metformin reduced the complications of diabetes such as heart disease, blindness and kidney disease.
Sitagliptin is an oral drug that reduces blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Following a meal, incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released from the intestine, and their levels increase in the blood. GLP-1 and GIP reduce blood glucose by increasing the production and release of insulin from the pancreas. GLP-1 also reduces blood glucose by reducing the secretion by the pancreas of glucagon, a hormone that increases the production of glucose by the liver and raises the level of glucose in the blood. The net effect of increased release of GLP-1 and GIP is to reduce blood glucose levels. In addition, sitagliptin inhibits the enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) that destroys GLP-1 and GIP and thereby increases the levels and activity of both hormones and thereby the release of insulin. As a result, blood glucose levels fall.
SIDE EFFECTS AND PRECAUTIONS: The most common side effects of Janumet are:
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 12/19/2014
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