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- What is metformin and sitagliptin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for metformin and sitagliptin?
- Is metformin and sitagliptin available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for metformin and sitagliptin?
- What are the side effects of metformin and sitagliptin?
- What is the dosage for metformin and sitagliptin?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with metformin and sitagliptin?
- Is metformin and sitagliptin safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about metformin and sitagliptin?
What is metformin and sitagliptin, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. It limits blood glucose levels by reducing the amount of glucose released by the liver into the blood and by increasing the removal of glucose from blood by muscle and fat tissues. Type 2 diabetes results when there is reduced sensitivity of muscle and fat to the effects of insulin. When the diabetes progresses, the pancreas produces less insulin. Both defects result in increased levels of glucose in the blood.
Metformin is an oral medication that lowers blood glucose by increasing the sensitivity of liver, muscle, fat, and other tissues to the effects of insulin. Increasing the sensitivity of tissues to insulin causes more glucose to be removed from blood and thereby reduces the level of glucose in the blood. In scientific studies, metformin reduced the complications of diabetes such as heart disease, blindness and kidney disease.
Sitagliptin is an oral drug that reduces blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Following a meal, incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released from the intestine, and their levels increase in the blood. GLP-1 and GIP reduce blood glucose by increasing the production and release of insulin from the pancreas. GLP-1 also reduces blood glucose by reducing the secretion by the pancreas of glucagon, a hormone that increases the production of glucose by the liver and raises the level of glucose in the blood. The net effect of increased release of GLP-1 and GIP is to reduce blood glucose levels. In addition, sitagliptin inhibits the enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) that destroys GLP-1 and GIP and thereby increases the levels and activity of both hormones and thereby the release of insulin. As a result, blood glucose levels fall.
What brand names are available for metformin and sitagliptin?
Is metformin and sitagliptin available as a generic drug?
GENERIC AVAILABLE: No
Do I need a prescription for metformin and sitagliptin?
What are the side effects of metformin and sitagliptin?
AND PRECAUTIONS The most common side effects of Janumet are:
Lactic acidosis is a serious side effect of metformin that occurs in one out of every 30,000 patients and is fatal in 50% of cases. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are weakness, trouble breathing, abnormal heartbeats, unusual muscle pain, stomach discomfort, light-headedness and feeling cold. Patients at risk for lactic acidosis include those with reduced function of the kidneys or liver, congestive heart failure, severe acute illnesses, and dehydration. Janumet should be discontinued immediately if lactic acidosis is suspected.
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