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- Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) facts
- What is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)?
- What causes MERS? How is MERS transmitted?
- What are risk factors for MERS-CoV infection?
- What are MERS symptoms and signs?
- How is MERS-CoV diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for MERS-CoV?
- What is the prognosis of MERS?
- Is it possible to prevent MERS?
- Is there a vaccine for MERS-CoV?
- Where can people get more information about MERS-CoV?
How is MERS-CoV diagnosed?
MERS-CoV is detected using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. On June 5, 2013, the FDA issued an emergency-use authorization (EUA) for the CDC Novel Coronavirus 2012 Real-Time RT-PCR Assay. This test detects Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), formerly known as novel coronavirus 2012 or NCV-2012, in patients with signs and symptoms of MERS and appropriate risk factors. This assay is distributed by the CDC to qualified laboratories. The PCR is performed on a sample of respiratory secretions or blood.
When the patient's history makes the MERS diagnosis likely, these tests are done with the help of state and local public-health authorities, the CDC, and infectious disease subspecialists. The CDC confirms all positive tests.
Other tests may be abnormal, but they are not specific for SARS or MERS. The chest X-ray shows pneumonia, which may look patchy at first. Typically, infiltrates may look like "ground glass" on CT scans but may progress to a "white out" appearance. Usually, lymphocyte and platelet counts are decreased while creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels may be increased.
MERS should be suspected in people with the appropriate symptoms who work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory, who are healthcare workers, or potential contacts of a MERS-infected person. It is extremely unlikely that a patient in the U.S. will have MERS without having traveled to the Middle East or caring for an infected returning traveler. In 2014, MERS-CoV infections were diagnosed in two people who had no ties to each other. Both individuals were traveling healthcare workers living and working in Saudi Arabia. None of the staff caring for these individuals nor household contacts became infected with MERS-CoV.