MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) (cont.)

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How is MERS-CoV diagnosed?

MERS-CoV is detected using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. On June 5, 2013, the FDA issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the CDC Novel Coronavirus 2012 Real-time RT-PCR Assay. This test detects Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), formerly known as novel coronavirus 2012 or NCV-2012, in patients with signs and symptoms of MERS and appropriate risk factors. This assay is distributed by the CDC to qualified laboratories. The PCR is performed on a sample of respiratory secretions or blood.

When the patient's history makes the MERS diagnosis likely, these tests are done with the help of state and local public-health authorities, the CDC, and infectious-disease subspecialists. The CDC confirms all positive tests.

Other tests may be abnormal, but they are not specific for SARS or MERS. The chest X-ray shows pneumonia, which may look patchy at first. Typically, infiltrates may look like "ground glass" on CT scans but may progress to a "white out" appearance. Usually, lymphocyte and platelet counts are decreased while creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels may be increased.

MERS should be suspected in people with the appropriate symptoms who work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory or who have been exposed to a MERS-infected person. No cases of MERS have been reported in the United States, so it is extremely unlikely that a patient in the U.S. will have MERS without travelling to the Middle East or caring for an infected returning traveler.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 12/10/2013

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