Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Note: We recommend you print this page to use as
a reference for your consultation with your doctor.
Could my symptoms be due to a condition other than
menopause? (Be ready
with a diary of symptoms - the character, frequency, duration, intensity,
What are the medications that I might consider to control my menopause
symptoms? Are there lifestyle or other modifications I can make to help
alleviate the symptoms?
If I choose to use hormone therapy, what are the advantages and
disadvantages of the various routes of administration (pill, patch, cream,
What are the side effects of hormone therapy, and how does my individual
health/family history affect my decision to take hormone therapy? What are
If I choose a non-hormonal prescription medication that is not
FDA-approved for menopause symptoms (such as a
selective serotonin reuptake
inhibitor or SSRI medication), what
is the scientific evidence that it works?
How do the side effects differ among the various non-hormonal
prescription medications commonly used for menopause symptoms?
Given that long-term safety is not yet established for any of the herbal
or food supplement (over-the-counter) remedies, are any suggested to be effective by
reliable scientific trials?
What are the herbal and/or food supplement remedies that women commonly
buy to treat menopause symptoms
(for example, hot flashes,
painful sexual intercourse), and what are the side effects of these
remedies? What are the potential risks or dangers of these treatments?
Which herbal or food supplements might interact with my current
Are there over-the-counter menopause remedies that I have to discontinue
prior to undergoing any surgery or procedure?
REFERENCE: UpToDate.com. Patient information: Menopause (Beyond the Basics).