Marijuana (cont.)

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Where can people find more information about marijuana abuse and addiction?

Medically reviewed by Martin E Zipser, MD; American board of Surgery


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Treatment Revision 2001.

American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with substance use disorders, second edition. In, American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Patients With Substance Use Disorders 2006 May.

Budney AJ, Roffman R, Stephens RS, Walker D. Marijuana dependence and its treatment. Addiction Science in Clinical Practice 2007 December; 4(1): 4-16.

Callaway E. Regular marijuana usage robs men of sexual highs. Journal of Sexual Medicine 2009 August; 16: 2.

Elkashef A, Vocci F, Huestis M, et al. Marijuana neurobiology and treatment. Substance Abuse 2008; 29(3): 17-29.

Looby A, Earleywine M. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users. Substance Abuse Treatment and Prevention Policy 2007; 2: 3.

Merriam Webster's Dictionary 2011.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Gender and ethnic patterns in drug use among high school seniors 2003 August; 18(2).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Teen marijuana use increases, especially among eighth-graders 2010 December.

New York Times Company. Marijuana and medical marijuana. The New York Times 2011 August 6. Physicians' Desk Reference. 2011.

Pierre JM. Psychosis associated with medicinal marijuana: risk vs. benefits of medicinal cannabis use. American Journal of Psychiatry 2010 May; 167: 598-599.

Tarter RE, Vanyukov M, Kirisci L, Reynolds M, Clark DB. Predictors of marijuana use in adolescents before and after licit drug use: examination of the gateway hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry 2006 December; 163: 2134-2140.

Williams JS. Cognitive Deficits in marijuana smokers persist after use stops. National Institute on Drug Abuse 2003 December;18(5).

Zhang ZF, Morgenstern H, Spitz MR, et al. Marijuana use and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Epidemiological Biomarkers Preview 1999 December; 8(12): 1071-1078.

Zickler P. Marijuana-related disorders, but not prevalence of use, rise over past decade. National Institute on Drug Abuse 2005 May; 19(6).

Zickler P. Twin study links marijuana abuse, suicide and depression. National Institute on Drug Abuse 2005 August; 20(2).

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/17/2014

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