mannitol (Osmitrol)

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Medical and Pharmacy Editor:

GENERIC NAME: mannitol

BRAND NAME: Osmitrol

DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Mannitol is a naturally occurring substance that causes the body to lose water (diuresis) through osmosis. Mannitol promotes diuresis in kidneys by increasing the concentration of filtrates in the kidney and blocking reabsorption of water by kidney tubules. The FDA approved mannitol in June 1964.

PRESCRIPTION: Yes

GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes

PREPARATIONS: Mannitol intravenous injections are available in following strengths and sizes: 5% and 10% in 1000 ml containers; 15% in 500 ml containers, 20% in 250 ml and 500 ml containers; and 25% in 50 ml flip-top vials.

STORAGE: Store mannitol injections at room temperature between 20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F).

PRESCRIBED FOR: Mannitol is used for diuresis in treatment and prevention of reduced urine production in acute kidney failure. It is also used for reducing intracranial pressure and brain mass in people with swelling in the brain (cerebral edema). It is used for reducing intraocular pressure and irrigation of the urinary bladder to promote urinary excretion of toxic materials.

DOSING:

Adults

  • Prevention of acute renal railure (oliguria): 50 to100 g of mannitol given as 5%, 10%, or 15% solution depending on the patient's fluid requirements.
  • Treatment of oliguria: 100 g administered as a 15 or 20% solution.
  • Reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass: 0.25 g/kg given every 6 to 8 hours.
  • Reduction of intraocular pressure: 1.5 to 2 g/kg body weight, as 15% to 25% solution administered over 30 to 60 minutes.
  • Adjunctive therapy for intoxications: Adults may receive a 5% to 25% solution for as long as urinary output remains high.

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Mannitol should not be used with tobramycin, because mannitol increases tobramycin levels significantly through an unknown mechanism.

PREGNANCY: There are no adequate studies done on mannitol to determine safe and effective use in pregnant women.

NURSING MOTHERS: It is not known whether Mannitol enters breast milk; therefore, it is best to be cautious before using it in nursing mothers.

SIDE EFFECTS: Side effects of Mannitol are pulmonary congestion, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, dry mouth, thirst, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, nausea, and chest pain.

REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information.


Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 6/30/2014



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