Malaria

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Malaria facts

  • Over 200 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2010.
  • The World Health Organization estimates that 500,000-800,000 people died of malaria in 2010; the vast majority are young children in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • About 1,500 cases are diagnosed in the U.S. each year, usually in travelers returning from endemic areas.
  • Malaria was a serious public-health treat in the U.S. until it was eliminated during the 1920s-1940s. Much of the early work done by the CDC focused on controlling and eliminating malaria in the U.S.

What is malaria?

Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal, disease spread by mosquitoes and caused by a parasite. Malaria was a significant health risk in the U.S. until it was eliminated by multiple programs in the late 1940s. The illness presents with flu-like symptoms that include high fever and chills.

There are three necessary aspects to the malaria life cycle:

  1. The Anopheles mosquito that carries the parasite and where the parasite starts its life cycle
  2. The parasite (Plasmodium) parasite has multiple subspecies, each causing a different severity of symptoms and responding to different treatments.
  3. The parasite first travels to a human's liver to grow and multiply. It then travels in the bloodstream and infects and destroys red blood cells.

Malaria can spread without a mosquito. This occurs rarely and is usually found in a transmission from the mother to the unborn child (congenital malaria), by blood transfusions, or when intravenous-drug users share needles.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/19/2014

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Learn how to prevent malaria when traveling abroad.

Malaria Prevention

Many travelers to tropical countries are concerned about the possibility of contracting malaria, a potentially fatal infection transmitted by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. While malaria is most common in Africa, the disease occurs in over 100 countries.

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