Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite, Plasmodium, which infects red blood cells. Malaria is characterized by cycles of chills, fever, pain, and sweating. Historical records suggest
malaria has infected humans since the beginning of mankind. The name "mal aria" (meaning "bad air" in Italian) was first used in English in 1740 by H. Walpole when describing the disease. The term was shortened to "malaria" in the 20th century. C. Laveran in 1880 was the first to identify the parasites in human blood. In 1889, R. Ross discovered that mosquitoes transmitted malaria. Of the four common species that cause malaria, the most serious type is
Plasmodium falciparum malaria. It can be life-threatening. However, another relatively new species,
Plasmodium knowlesi, is also a dangerous species that is typically found only in long-tailed and pigtail macaque monkeys. Like
P. falciparum, P. knowlesi may be deadly to anyone infected. The other three common species of malaria (P. vivax, P. malariae, and
P. ovale) are generally less serious and are usually not life-threatening. It is possible to be infected with more than one species of
Plasmodium at the same time.
Currently, about 2 million deaths per year worldwide are due to Plasmodium infections. The majority occur in children under 5 years of
age in sub-Saharan African countries. There are about 400 million new cases per year worldwide. Most people diagnosed in the U.S. obtained their infection outside of the country, usually while living or traveling through an area where malaria is endemic.
Three main factors determine treatments: the infecting species of Plasmodium parasite, the clinical situation of the patient (for
example, adult, child, or pregnant female with either mild or severe malaria), and the drug susceptibility of the infecting parasites. Drug susceptibility is determined by the geographic area where the infection was acquired. Different areas of the world have malaria types that are resistant to certain medications. The correct drugs for each type of malaria must be prescribed by a doctor who is familiar with malaria treatment protocols. Since people infected with
P. falciparum malaria can die (often because of delayed treatment), immediate treatment for
P. falciparum malaria is necessary.
Chronic cough is a cough that persists. Chronic cough is not a
disease in itself; rather it is a symptom of an underlying condition. Chronic
cough is a common
problem and the reason for many doctor visits. "...