Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Testosterone is a hormone required for
male development and is produced primarily in the testicles. It is responsible
for building muscle and bone mass as well as sperm production and sex drive. It
influences male pattern fat distribution, bone density, and red blood
Lack of or underproduction of testosterone either directly due
to decreased production in the testes or indirectly due to lack of stimulation
of the testes to produce testosterone by the pituitary gland is called
hypogonadism and is a medical condition requiring treatment.
In the normal
developing male, testosterone peaks during early adulthood. Once you reach age
30, testosterone levels slowly decline by approximately 1% a year. This is a
normal part of aging.
What are the "normal" levels of testosterone in men?
The low limit of
testosterone levels in men is about 300 nanograms per deciliter and the upper
normal limit is approximately 1000-1200 ng/dl. A low level needs to be
investigated further to distinguish it from normal aging.
Although testosterone therapy helps with hypogonadism, whether it helps in the
reversal or slowing of normal effects of aging and lower testosterone levels is
unclear. Several published research articles have conflicting results and more
research is needed to make a final determination about the use of testosterone
for healthy aging males.