Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), uses a low-voltage electrical current to remove
abnormal tissues of the cervix. It has an
advantage, therefore, over the destructive techniques (CO2 laser and
cryocautery) in that an intact tissue sample for analysis can be obtained. LEEP also is popular because it is inexpensive, simple, and typically has few risks or side effects. LEEP is also known as large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ).
This procedure is used most often for treating mild to moderate dysplasia (abnormal
changes of the cells lining the cervix or precancers) that have been identified
by colposcopy and/or cervical biopsy. In certain situations, severe dysplasia
and noninvasive cancer that are localized and can be removed, may also be treated by LEEP.
A Pap smear (also known as the Pap test) is a medical procedure in which a
sample of cells from a woman's cervix (the end of the uterus that extends into
the vagina) is collected
and spread (smeared) on a mi"...