lidocaine HCl injection, Xylocaine
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
Medical and Pharmacy Editor:
GENERIC NAME: lidocaine HCl injection
BRAND NAME: Xylocaine
DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Lidocaine injection is a local anesthetic. This means that it reduces sensation or pain in the area of the body where it is injected and does not affect other areas. It is similar to bupivacaine (Marcaine), articaine (Zorcaine), and Mepivacaine (Carbocaine). These drugs reduce sensation or pain by blocking nerve impulses that send pain sensations to the brain. Lidocaine starts working within 90 seconds and the effects last about 20 minutes. The FDA approved lidocaine in November 1948.
GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes
PREPARATIONS: Injectable Solution: 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 4%, and 5%; 200, 400 and 800 mg/100 mL
STORAGE: All solutions should be stored at room temperature, 25 C (77 F) and protected from light.
PRESCRIBED FOR: Lidocaine injections are used for production of local or regional anesthesia in order to perform various types of surgeries and procedures.
DOSING: Dosing varies considerably depending on the use. Total recommended doses range from 20 mg to 300 mg.
DRUG INTERACTIONS: Administering lidocaine solutions containing epinephrine or norepinephrine (which are added to prolong the action of the lidocaine) to patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants may produce severe and prolonged high blood pressure. Such combinations should be avoided. A similar reaction may occur with drugs used to increase blood pressure (vasopressors).
PREGNANCY: Lidocaine has not been adequately studied in pregnant women. Studies in animals have not shown evidence of harm to the fetus.
NURSING MOTHERS: It is not known whether lidocaine is excreted in breast milk.
SIDE EFFECTS: Common side effects of lidocaine include injection site pain, feeling lightheaded, euphoria, shaking, low blood pressure, drowsiness, confusion, weakness, blurry or double vision, and dizziness. Serious reactions such as seizures, abnormal heart beats, slow heart beat, heart block, severe allergic reactions, respiratory arrest, and coma have occurred. People allergic to anesthetics similar to lidocaine should not use lidocaine.
REFERENCE: FDA prescribing information.
Last Editorial Review: 2/7/2014
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