lidocaine injection (Xylocaine) (cont.)

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DRUG INTERACTIONS: Dronedarone increases blood levels of lidocaine and its side effects by reducing its breakdown in the liver. Lidocaine increases the effect of bupivicaine liposomal because it increases the availability of bupivicaine. The two drugs should not be mixed. Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Equetro, Carbatrol), phenobarbital, and rifampin may reduce blood levels of lidocaine by increasing its breakdown in the liver. Erythromycin, amprenavir (Agenerase), omeprazole (Prilosec), and ciprofloxacin (Cirpo, Cirpo XR, Proquin XR) may increase levels of lidocaine by reducing its breakdown in the liver.

PREGNANCY: There are no adequate studies of use in pregnant women. Available evidence does not suggest harm to the fetus. Lidocaine crosses the placenta and does enter the fetal blood stream so close monitoring of the heart is recommended.

NURSING MOTHERS: Lidocaine is excreted in breast milk so it should be used cautiously by nursing mothers. The amount absorbed by the infant is not expected to be significant.

SIDE EFFECTS: Side effects vary by dose and site of administration. The most common adverse reactions include low heart rate, low blood pressure, backache, dizziness, lightheadedness, and numbness. Additional side effects include shivering, tingling, sedation, blurry vision, confusion, nervousness, and euphoria. Rare, but serious side effects include cardiac arrest, methemoglobinemia, breakdown of cartilage, seizure, and loss of consciousness.

REFERENCE: FDA Prescribing Information.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 7/18/2014

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