lidocaine injection (Xylocaine)

  • Pharmacy Author:
    Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD

    Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.

  • Medical and Pharmacy Editor: Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP
    Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP

    Jerry R. Balentine, DO, FACEP

    Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.

View the Heart Disease Slideshow

GENERIC NAME: lidocaine injection

BRAND NAMES: Xylocaine

DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Lidocaine is an antiarrhythmic agent (affects heart rhythm) as well as a local anesthetic (amide type). It is similar to bupivacaine and procaine. Lidocaine, like other local anesthetics causes a loss of sensation by reducing the flow of sodium in and out nerves to decrease the initiation and transfer of nerve signals. Compared to procaine, lidocaine has a more rapid onset, longer duration of action, and more potent activity. Lidocaine works as an antiarrhythmic by also decreasing conduction of electrical signals in damaged (ischemic) heart tissue. Lidocaine was approved by the FDA in November 1948.

PRESCRIPTION: Yes

GENERIC AVAILABLE: Yes

PREPARATIONS: Injection Solution with or without preservatives: 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.8%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 4%, 5% in 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 250, 500 mL.

STORAGE: Lidocaine should be stored at room temperature, between 15 C to 30 C (59 F to 86 F).

PRESCRIBED FOR: Lidocaine is prescribed for local or regional anesthesia (loss of sensation) during surgical procedures as well as for control of ventricular arrhythmias associated with heart attack or cardiac surgery.

DOSING: The initial dose for anesthesia in adults depends on the procedure, necessary depth of anesthesia, blood flow to the region, desired duration of anesthesia, and condition of the patient. For anesthesia, the maximum dose is 4.5 mg/kg and should not exceed 300 mg per dose. For control of arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythm), an initial intravenous or intraosseous (injected into bone) dose is 1 to 1.5 mg/kg. If providing dose by endotrachial tube the initial dose is 2 to 3.75 mg/kg. Lidocaine is rapidly metabolized. Any conditions that later liver functions may alter the half live of lidocaine.

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Dronedarone increases blood levels of lidocaine and its side effects by reducing its breakdown in the liver. Lidocaine increases the effect of bupivicaine liposomal because it increases the availability of bupivicaine. The two drugs should not be mixed. Carbamazepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Equetro, Carbatrol), phenobarbital, and rifampin may reduce blood levels of lidocaine by increasing its breakdown in the liver. Erythromycin, amprenavir (Agenerase), omeprazole (Prilosec), and ciprofloxacin (Cirpo, Cirpo XR, Proquin XR) may increase levels of lidocaine by reducing its breakdown in the liver.

Quick GuideHeart Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Causes

Heart Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Causes
FDA Logo

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

RxList Logo

Need help identifying pills and medications?

Use the pill identifier tool on RxList.

Subscribe to MedicineNet's Heart Health Newsletter

By clicking Submit, I agree to the MedicineNet's Terms & Conditions & Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet's subscriptions at any time.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors