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- Kidney failure facts
- What are the kidneys?
- What are the kidneys? (Continued)
- What causes kidney failure?
- What causes kidney failure? (Continued)
- What are the signs and symptoms of kidney failure?
- How is kidney failure diagnosed?
- What is the treatment for kidney failure?
- Peritoneal dialysis
- Kidney transplantation
- What is the prognosis for someone with kidney failure?
What are the kidneys? (Continued)
When blood flows to the kidney, sensors within specialized kidney cells regulate how much water to excrete as urine, along with what concentration of electrolytes. For example, if a person is dehydrated from exercise or from an illness, the kidneys will hold onto as much water as possible and the urine becomes very concentrated. When adequate water is present in the body, the urine is much more dilute, and the urine becomes clear. This system is controlled by renin, a hormone produced in the kidney that is part of the fluid and blood pressure regulation systems of the body.
Kidneys are also the source of erythropoietin in the body, a hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells. Special cells in the kidney monitor the oxygen concentration in blood. If oxygen levels fall, erythropoietin levels rise and the body starts to manufacture more red blood cells.
Urine that is made by each kidney flows through the ureter, a tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. Urine is stored within the bladder, and when urination occurs, the bladder empties urine through a tube called the urethra.