Besides supportive care, the medical team needs to decide on the appropriate antibiotics to treat malaria. The choice will depend on several factors, including
- the specific species of parasite identified,
- the severity of symptoms,
- determination of drug resistance based on the geographic area where the patient traveled.
What is malaria?
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites that invade red blood cells. The protozoan parasites are among several species of the genus Plasmodium. This malaria parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes (vectors) to humans through mosquito bites that, during the bite, release parasites into the person's blood. Malaria is characterized by cycles of chills, high fever, and sweating.
Is malaria contagious?
No, malaria is not contagious. Malaria is not spread from person to person and is not sexually transmitted. Malaria is not contagious through casual contact or through kissing. It is not considered a sexual transmitted disease (STD). Malaria is transmitted from mosquitoes to humans. There is one strain of the parasite Plasmodium, P. knowlesi, that can be transmitted from monkeys (macaques) by mosquitoes to humans and is termed "zoonotic" malaria.
What is the incubation period for malaria?
The time period from initial parasite infection to the appearance of symptoms varies according to the particular species of Plasmodium that infects an individual. For example, P. malariae ranges from about 18-40 days, while P. falciparum ranges from nine to 14 days, and 12-18 days for P. vivax and P. ovale. Initial symptoms of malaria may include shaking chills, high fevers, sweating, headaches, nausea and vomiting, anemia, and/or diarrhea. Diagnostic tests include microscopic examination of the blood for the presence of parasites, serology, PCR testing, and other tests that determine if the parasite is resistant to certain drugs.
Travelers returning from malaria-endemic areas should remind health-care providers about their travels for at least one year after they have returned from that area of the world to avoid potentially missing the diagnosis of the disease.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 8/24/2016