Insulin for Diabetes Treatment (Types, Side Effects, and Preparations) (cont.)
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Omudhome Ogbru, PharmD
Dr. Ogbru received his Doctorate in Pharmacy from the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy in 1995. He completed a Pharmacy Practice Residency at the University of Arizona/University Medical Center in 1996. He was a Professor of Pharmacy Practice and a Regional Clerkship Coordinator for the University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy from 1996-99.
Medical and Pharmacy Editor:
In this Article
How well does insulin treat diabetes?
Efficacy of insulin
What is the mechanism of action (how it works) for insulin?
Pharmacology (mechanism of action) of insulin
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas. It regulates the movement of glucose from blood into cells. Insulin lowers blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake primarily by skeletal muscle cells and fat, and by inhibiting glucose production and release by the liver. Insulin inhibits lipolysis (breakdown of fat), proteolysis (breakdown of proteins), and gluconeogenesis (manufacture of glucose). It also increases protein synthesis and conversion of excess glucose into fat. Insulins used to treat diabetes are pharmacologically similar to the naturally produced hormone. Patients with diabetes are insensitive to insulin and do not produce enough insulin which leads to hyperglycemia and symptoms of diabetes. Exogenous insulin preparations replace insulin in diabetics, increasing the uptake of glucose by cells and reducing the short and long term consequences of diabetes.
REFERENCES: FDA Prescribing Informaiton.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/11/2014
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