Insulin for Diabetes Treatment (Types, Side Effects, and Preparations) (cont.)

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How well does insulin treat diabetes?

Efficacy of insulin

  • In a 24 week study of patients with type 1 diabetes, regular human subcutaneous insulin (mean dose = 18.3 IU) before breakfast and dinner plus human insulin isophane suspension twice daily (mean dose = 37.1 IU) reduced HbA1c by 0.4% from baseline and fasting glucose by -6 mg/dl.
  • In a 24 week study of patients with type 2 diabetes, regular human subcutaneous insulin (mean dose = 25.5 IU) before breakfast and dinner plus human insulin isophane suspension twice daily (mean dose = 52.3 IU) reduced HbA1c by 0.6% from baseline and fasting glucose by -6 mg/dl.

What is the mechanism of action for insulin?

Pharmacology (Mechanism of Action) of insulin

Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas. It regulates the movement of glucose from blood into cells. Insulin lowers blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake primarily by skeletal muscle cells and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulin inhibits lipolysis (breakdown of fat), proteolysis (breakdown of proteins), and gluconeogenesis (manufacture of glucose). It also increases protein synthesis and conversion of excess glucose into fat. Exogenous insulins are pharmacologically similar to the naturally produced hormone. Patients with diabetes are insensitive to insulin and do not produce enough insulin which leads to hyperglycemia and other symptoms of diabetes. Exogenous insulin preparations replace insulin in diabetics, increasing the uptake of glucose and reducing short and long terms consequences of diabetes.

REFERENCES:

eMedicineHealth.com. Diabetes.

FDA prescribing information for Humulin, Lantus, Levemir, Apidra, Humalog, and Novolog.

Micromedex: 1974-2012 Thompson Reuters


Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 1/9/2013


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