Dr. Nabili received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), majoring in chemistry and biochemistry. He then completed his graduate degree at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His graduate training included a specialized fellowship in public health where his research focused on environmental health and health-care delivery and management.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Insomnia is defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining
sleep, or both,
despite adequate opportunity and time to sleep, leading to impaired daytime
functioning. Insomnia may be due to poor quality or quantity of sleep.
Insomnia is very common and occurs in 30% to 50% of the general population.
Approximately 10% of the population may suffer from chronic (long-standing)
Insomnia affects people of all ages including children, although it is more
common in adults and its frequency increases with age. In general, women are
affected more frequently than men.
Insomnia may be divided into three classes based on the
duration of symptoms.
Insomnia lasting one week or less may be termed transient
short-term insomnia lasts more than one week but resolves in less
than three weeks; and
long-term or chronic insomnia lasts more than three weeks.
Insomnia can also be classified based on the underlying reasons for insomnia
such as sleep hygiene, medical conditions, sleep disorders, stress factors, and so on.
It is important to make a distinction between insomnia
and other similar terminology; short duration sleep and sleep deprivation.
duration sleep may be normal in some individuals who may require less time for
sleep without feeling daytime impairment, the central symptom in the definition
In insomnia, adequate time and opportunity for sleep is available,
whereas in sleep deprivation, lack of sleep is due to lack of opportunity or
time to sleep because of voluntary or intentional avoidance of sleep.
Reviewed by Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD on 2/7/2012
Medical Author: Melissa Conrad Stoppler, MD
Medical Editor: Jay W. Marks, MD
Viewer Question: When I'm under stress, I can't seem to get any sleep. How can I learn to sleep even during times of emotional stress?
Doctor's Response: If you experience short-term, stress-related insomnia, there are some measures you can take to help improve the quality of your sleep.
Make your bedroom an inviting place to be. Clear the clutter and invest in some quality sheets or comforter in a soothing color. Create a welcoming environment with flowers, photos, pictures, candles-whatever makes you feel content and relaxed.
Avoid use of the bed for watching TV, eating, or working, so that you are conditioned to associate the bed with sleep. If you do wish to use the bed for a bit of nighttime reading, read only pleasure books in bed.
Establishing a regular sleep-wake cycle is also important. Your body will learn to set its internal clock to your schedule and will eventually respond to internal cues to become sleepy at a given time and to awaken at a given time. A good way to begin this is by getting up at the same time every morning-yes, even on weekends. Even if you're tired, try not to nap....