Flu (Influenza)

  • Medical Author:
    Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

    Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.

  • Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

Flu Slideshow: 10 Foods to Eat When You Have the Flu

Quick GuideFlu Pictures Slideshow: 10 Foods to Eat When You Have the Flu

Flu Pictures Slideshow: 10 Foods to Eat When You Have the Flu

How does flu spread?

Flu is easily spread from person to person both directly and indirectly. The influenza virus can spread to other people in droplets contaminated with the virus. Produced by coughing, sneezing, or even talking, these droplets land near or in the mouth or the nose of uninfected people, and the disease may spread to them. The disease can spread indirectly to others if contaminated droplets land on utensils, dishes, clothing, or almost any surface and then are touched by uninfected people. If the infected person touches their nose or mouth, for example, they transfer or spread the disease to themselves or others.

What is the key to flu (influenza) prevention?

Flu vaccine

Most of the illness and death caused by influenza can be prevented by annual influenza vaccination. The CDC's current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued recommendations for everyone 6 months of age and older, who do not have any contraindications to vaccination, to receive a flu vaccine each year.

Flu vaccine (influenza vaccine made from inactivated and sometimes attenuated [noninfective] virus or virus components) is specifically recommended for those who are at high risk for developing serious complications as a result of influenza infection.

A new vaccine type, Fluzone Intradermal, was approved by the FDA in 2011 (for adults 18-64 years of age). This injection goes only into the intradermal area of the skin, not into the muscle (IM) like most conventional flu shots, and uses a much smaller needle than the conventional shots. This killed viral preparation is supposed to be about as effective as the IM shot but claims to produce less pain and fewer side effects (see section below).

Other simple hygiene methods can reduce or prevent some individuals from getting the flu. For example, avoiding kissing, handshakes, and sharing drinks or food with infected people and avoiding touching surfaces like sinks and other items handled by individuals with the flu are good preventive measures. Individuals with the flu should avoid coughing or sneezing on uninfected people; quick hugs are probably okay as long as there is no contact with mucosal surfaces and/or droplets that may contain the virus.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 4/28/2016
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